Response requirements affect offside judgments in football (soccer)
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Judging offside in football represents a typical go–nogo task (offside—raising the flag, no offside—no response). Nevertheless, several studies involved two-choice tasks (e.g. offside—press key A, no offside—press key B) to investigate potential sources of errors in offside situations. While go–nogo and choice–response tasks are commonly used in experimental psychology, response preferences may differ between the two tasks. Therefore, we investigated the impact of response requirements on offside judgments in a sample of male participants without experience in professional refereeing. Each participant judged displays of potential offside situations in a go–nogo condition and in a two-choice condition. The results show that response requirements affected the response bias of the participants and suggest that go–nogo requirements increase the preference for the positive response (i.e. the offside response) as compared to the two-choice task. We discuss both methodological and theoretical implications of this finding.
The authors thank Lukas Stellmach for collecting parts of the data.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The procedure performed in the presented study was in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional committee (the ethics committee of the German Sport University approved conduction of this study) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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