, Volume 250, Issue 5, pp 1603–1612 | Cite as

Identification of the phytosulfokine receptor 1 (OsPSKR1) confers resistance to bacterial leaf streak in rice

  • Wei Yang
  • Baogang Zhang
  • Guanghui Qi
  • Luyue Shang
  • Haifeng Liu
  • Xinhua DingEmail author
  • Zhaohui ChuEmail author
Original Article


Main conclusion

A rice allele of PSKR1 functioning in resistance to bacterial leaf streak was identified.


Phytosulfokine (PSK), a disulfated pentapeptide encoded by precursor genes that are ubiquitously present in higher plants, belongs to the group of plant peptide growth factors. The PSK receptor PSKR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana is an active kinase and has guanylate cyclase activity resulting in dual-signaling outputs. Here, the LOC_Os02g41890 out of three candidates completely rescued root growth and susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv. DC3000 in the Arabidopsis pskr1-3 mutant and was identified as OsPSKR1. This protein was localized to plasma membrane similar to AtPSKR1. The expression of OsPSKR1 was upregulated upon inoculation with RS105, a strain of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) that cause bacterial leaf streak in rice. OsPSKR1 overexpression (OE) lines had greater resistance to RS105 than the wild type. Consistently, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes involved in the salicylic acid (SA) pathway was upregulated in the transgenic lines. Overall, OsPSKR1 functions as a candidate PSK receptor and regulates resistance to Xoc by activating the expression of pathogenesis-related genes involved in the SA pathway in rice.


Bacterial leaf streak Defense-related gene Phytohormones Phytosulfokine Rice 



Bacterial leaf streak


Green fluorescent protein


Jasmonic acid




Phytosulfokine receptor


Pseudomonas syringae


Salicylic acid


Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872925, 31700219), the Natural Science Fund for Outstanding Young Scholars of Shandong Province (JQ201807), the Shandong Modern Agricultural Technology & Industry system (SDAIT-17-06).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

The authors declare that the experiments comply with the laws of China.

Supplementary material

425_2019_3238_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Table S1 The primers used in this study (DOCX 12 kb)
425_2019_3238_MOESM2_ESM.tif (179 kb)
Suppl. Fig. S1 a Scheme of AtPSKR1 mutations. b The pskr1-3 (SALK_008585) mutant identified by PCR (TIFF 178 kb)
425_2019_3238_MOESM3_ESM.tif (62 kb)
Suppl. Fig. S2 PSK-induced increases in root length require AtPSKR1. Col-0 and pskr1-3 were grown on vertical MS-agar with or without 10 nM PSK, and the root length was recorded after 14 days (TIFF 61 kb)
425_2019_3238_MOESM4_ESM.tif (153 kb)
Suppl. Fig. S3 Identification of the OsPSKR1 transgenic rice lines. a Relative expression levels of OsPSKR1 in 3 identified T1 transgenic plants. OsActin was used as an internal control. Bars represent the means (three replicates for gene expression) ± SD. b Immunoblot analysis of total protein extracts separated by SDS-PAGE and probed with antibodies against Myc flag (α-Myc). The stained Rubisco protein show equal protein samples uploaded. The immunoblot band reflects PSKR1 protein of about 110 kD (TIFF 152 kb)
425_2019_3238_MOESM5_ESM.tif (973 kb)
Suppl. Fig. S4 Effects of PSK application on rice leaves. Three-week-old seedlings of wild-type ZH11 were treated with water, 1 nM and 10 nM PSK, and the data were recorded one month later. a Root length. b Plant height (TIFF 972 kb)
425_2019_3238_MOESM6_ESM.tif (222 kb)
Suppl. Fig. S5 Relative expression levels of PSK1, PSK4, PSK7 in 3 identified T1 transgenic plants post Xoc inoculation. OsActin was used as an internal control. Bars represent the means (three replicates for gene expression) ± SD (TIFF 221 kb)
425_2019_3238_MOESM7_ESM.tif (291 kb)
Suppl. Fig. S6 a Lesion lengths of the overexpression transgenic plants which pre-treat with 10 nM PSK. “*” indicates significant differences (t test, P < 0.05, n = 8); NS, not significant. b Relative expression levels of PR1a, PR8, PAL in the identified T1 transgenic plants pre-treat with 10 nM PSK. OsActin was used as an internal control. Bars represent the means (three replicates for gene expression) ± SD (TIFF 291 kb)
425_2019_3238_MOESM8_ESM.tif (129 kb)
Suppl. Fig. S7 Relative expression levels of IAA1, ARF8 in 3 identified T1 transgenic plants post Xoc inoculation. OsActin was used as an internal control. Bars represent the means (three replicates for gene expression) ± SD (TIFF 128 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of AgronomyShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’anChina
  2. 2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Vegetable Disease and Insect Pests, College of Plant ProtectionShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’anChina
  3. 3.College of Information Science and EngineeringShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’anChina
  4. 4.College of Plant ProtectionFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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