pp 1–15 | Cite as

Elevated CO2 induces age-dependent restoration of growth and metabolism in gibberellin-deficient plants

  • Karla Gasparini
  • Lucas C. Costa
  • Fred A. L. Brito
  • Thaline M. Pimenta
  • Flávio Barcellos Cardoso
  • Wagner L. Araújo
  • Agustín ZsögönEmail author
  • Dimas M. Ribeiro
Original Article


Main conclusion

The effect of elevated [CO2] on the growth of tomato plants with reduced gibberellin content is influenced by developmental stage.


The impact of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on plants has aroused interest in the last decades. Signaling molecules known as plant hormones are fundamental controllers of plant growth and development. Elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) increases plant growth; however, whether plant hormones act as mediators of this effect is still an open question. Here, we show the response to elevated [CO2] in tomato does not require a functional gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway. We compared growth and primary metabolism between wild-type (WT) and GA-deficient mutant (gib-1) plants transferred from ambient (400 ppm) to elevated (750 ppm) [CO2] at two different growth stages (either 21 or 35 days after germination, DAG). Growth, photosynthetic parameters and primary metabolism in the stunted gib-1 plants were restored when they were transferred to elevated [CO2] at 21 DAG. Elevated [CO2] also stimulated growth and photosynthetic parameters in WT plants at 21 DAG; however, only minor changes were observed in the level of primary metabolites. At 35 DAG, on the other hand, elevated [CO2] did not stimulate growth in WT plants and gib-1 mutants showed their characteristic stunted growth phenotype. Taken together, our results reveal that elevated [CO2] enhances growth only within a narrow developmental window, in which GA biosynthesis is dispensable. This finding could be relevant for breeding crops in the face of the expected increases in atmospheric CO2 over the next century.


Cell division Elevated CO2 Phase transition Plant hormone Tomato gibberellin-deficient 1 mutant 



Net rate of carbon assimilation


Days after germination




Gibberellin deficient


Relative growth ratio


Specific leaf area



This work was funded by a Grant (443064/2014–8) from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil). This study was financed in part by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher-Level Personnel (CAPES-Brazil) (Finance Code 001). We thank Joaquim Gasparini for assistance with photos.

Supplementary material

425_2019_3208_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.7 mb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 1736 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karla Gasparini
    • 1
  • Lucas C. Costa
    • 1
  • Fred A. L. Brito
    • 1
  • Thaline M. Pimenta
    • 1
  • Flávio Barcellos Cardoso
    • 1
  • Wagner L. Araújo
    • 1
  • Agustín Zsögön
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dimas M. Ribeiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Biologia VegetalUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrasil

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