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Colletotrichum acutatum M11 can suppress the defence response in strawberry plants

  • Rodrigo H. Tomas-Grau
  • Pia Di Peto
  • Nadia R. Chalfoun
  • Carlos F. Grellet-Bournonville
  • Gustavo G. Martos
  • Mario Debes
  • Marta E. Arias
  • Juan C. Díaz-RicciEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Main conclusion

Colletotrichum acutatum M11 produces a diffusible compound that suppresses the biochemical, physiological, molecular and anatomical events associated with the defence response induced by the plant defence elicitor AsES.

Abstract

The fungal pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease, causes important economical losses in strawberry crop worldwide and synthetic agrochemicals are used to control it. In this context, the control of the disease using bioproducts is gaining reputation as an alternative of those toxic and pollutant agrochemicals. However, the success of the strategies using bioproducts can be seriously jeopardized in the presence of biological agents exerting a defence suppression effect. In this report, we show that the response defence induced in plant by the elicitor AsES from the fungus Acremonium strictum can be suppressed by a diffusible compound produced by isolate M11 of C. acutatum. Results revealed that strawberry plants treated with conidia of the isolated M11 or the culture supernatant of the isolate M11 suppress: ROS accumulation (e.g., H2O2, O2· and NO), cell wall reinforcement (e.g., lignin and callose), and the up-regulation of defence-related genes (e.g., FaPR1, FaCHI23, FaPDF1.2, FaCAT, FaCDPK, FaCML39) induced by the elicitor AsES. Additionally, we show that the defence suppressing effect causes a systemic sensitization of plants. Results presented here highlights the necessity to make an integral study of the microbiome present in soils and plant biosphere before applying defence activation bioproducts to control crop diseases.

Keywords

Anthracnose Disease biocontrol Defence elicitor AsES Defence response Fragaria Fungal pathogen Suppressor 

Abbreviations

dpi

Days post infection

DSR

Disease severity rating

CF

Culture filtrate

PDB

Potato dextrose broth

SMS

Soft mechanical stimulation

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was partially supported with grants of the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (PIUNT 26/D642), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2017-0653), and CONICET (PUE-2016-0104). Authors are grateful to Strawberry Active Germplasm Bank (BGA) from Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (UNT), Cecilia Lemme for providing strawberry plants, and Rafael Gutierrez for technical assistance. RHTG, PDP, and GGM are CONICET fellowships, and NRCh, CFGB, MD and JCDR are members of CONICET.

Supplementary material

425_2019_3203_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (71 kb)
Online Resource S1 Scheme of plant treatments to estimate M11-CF nature (JPEG 70 kb)
425_2019_3203_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (100 kb)
Online Resource S2 Table with primers used in qPCR (JPEG 100 kb)
425_2019_3203_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (72 kb)
Online Resource S3 Effect of the co-inoculation of the isolate SS71 of A. strictum with the virulent isolate M11 of C. acutatum through time (JPEG 72 kb)
425_2019_3203_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (67 kb)
Online Resource S4 Viability of strawberry mesophyllic cells after treatments with M11-CF, SS71-CF and M11-CF + SS71-CF. Different letters represent statistically different values (Tukey test, P < 0.05) (JPEG 67 kb)
425_2019_3203_MOESM5_ESM.jpg (88 kb)
Online Resource S5 Micrographs of conidial suspensions of the isolate SS71 of A. strictum resuspended in PDB (Mock), M11-CF, SS71-CF, M11-CF + SS71-CF or Switch 0.0008%, at 0, 4 and 24 h post treatment (40x). Micrographies are representative of each treatment (Bars = 100 µm). Inserts showing fungal conidia or mycelia hyphae are magnifications of the corresponding micrographs (JPEG 87 kb)
425_2019_3203_MOESM6_ESM.jpg (90 kb)
Online Resource S6 Effect of M11-CF treated with Proteinase K and M11-CF filtered by 1-kDa cut-off membrane. DSR of strawberry plants cv. Pájaro infected with a conidia suspension (1.5 × 106 conidia mL−1) of the virulent isolate M11 of C. acutatum pretreated with the culture filtrates M11-CF treated with a proteinase K and b M11-CF filtered by 1-kDa cut-off membrane. Plants were inoculated with active M11 conidia 48 h post primary treatment with the culture filtrates as mentioned above. Evaluations were performed at 9, 21 and 30 days post infection. Three independent assays were performed (n = 6). Different letters represent statistically different DSR values (Tukey test, P < 0.05) (JPEG 89 kb)
425_2019_3203_MOESM7_ESM.jpg (87 kb)
Online Resource S7 Effect of M11-CF on DCFH fluorescence. a Relative fluorescence change of DCFH (■), DCFH + M11-CF plus Fe2+ (10 µm) and H2O2 (100 µM) (▲), and DCFH + M11-CF without Fe2+ and H2O2 (♦). Fluorescence was measured during 10 min at λex 485 nm and λem 525 nm. b Relative change of DCFH fluorescence measured after 10 min. Each value is an average (± SD) of 5 independent replicates. Different letters represent statistically different values (Tukey test, P < 0.05) (JPEG 86 kb)
425_2019_3203_MOESM8_ESM.jpg (65 kb)
Online Resource S8 M11-CF antioxidant activity. The analysis was carried out by evaluating the reduction of DPPH absorbance at 517 nm. Different concentrations of ascorbic acid (e.g. 1, 5, 10 and 50 µM) were used as standards and PDB was used as control. Three independent assays were performed. Different letters represent statistically different values (Tukey test, P < 0.05) (JPEG 64 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodrigo H. Tomas-Grau
    • 1
  • Pia Di Peto
    • 1
  • Nadia R. Chalfoun
    • 1
  • Carlos F. Grellet-Bournonville
    • 1
  • Gustavo G. Martos
    • 1
  • Mario Debes
    • 2
  • Marta E. Arias
    • 2
  • Juan C. Díaz-Ricci
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET-UNT, and Instituto de Química Biológica “Dr. Bernabé Bloj”, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, UNTSan Miguel de TucumánArgentina
  2. 2.Cátedra de Anatomía Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel LilloUniversidad Nacional de TucumánTucumánArgentina

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