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Diversity and evolution of cytochromes P450 in stramenopiles

Abstract

Main conclusion

Comparative genomic analysis of cytochromes P450 revealed high diversification and dynamic changes in stramenopiles, associated with transcriptional responsiveness to various environmental stimuli.

Comparative genomic and molecular evolution approaches were used to characterize cytochromes P450 (P450) diversity in stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis pointed to a high diversity of P450 in stramenopiles and identified three major clans. The CYP51 and CYP97 clans were present in brown algae, diatoms and Nannochloropsis gaditana, whereas the CYP5014 clan mainly includes oomycetes. Gene gain and loss patterns revealed that six CYP families—CYP51, CYP97, CYP5160, CYP5021, CYP5022, and CYP5165—predated the split of brown algae and diatoms. After they diverged, diatoms gained more CYP families, especially in the cold-adapted species Fragilariopsis cylindrus, in which eight new CYP families were found. Selection analysis revealed that the expanded CYP51 family in the brown alga Cladosiphon okamuranus exhibited a more relaxed selection constraint compared with those of other brown algae and diatoms. Our RNA-seq data further evidenced that most of P450s in Saccharina japonica are highly expressed in large sporophytes, which could potentially promote the large kelp formation in this developmental stage. A survey of Ectocarpus siliculosus and diatom transcriptomes showed that many P450s are responsive to stress, nutrient limitation or light quality, suggesting pivotal roles in detoxification or metabolic processes under adverse environmental conditions. The information provided in this study will be helpful in designing functional experiments and interpreting P450 roles in this particular lineage.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Special Scientific Research Funds for Central Non-Profit Institutes, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (20603022016010, 20603022016001); National Natural Science Foundation of China (41676145); Shandong key Research and Development Plan (2018GHY115010); China Agriculture Research System (CARS-50); Taishan Scholars Funding; AoShan Talents Program (No. 2015ASTPES03); the Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of Shandong Province (JQ201509); Qingdao Municipal Science and Technology plan project (17-1-1-96-jch). G.V.M. benefited from the support of the French Government via the National Research Agency investment expenditure program IDEALG (ANR-10-BTBR-04) and from Région Bretagne via the grant « SAD2016-METALG (9673) » . This work received support from the initiative of excellence IDEX-unistra (ANR-10-IDEX-0002-28102) from the French national program “Investment for the future” to H.R.

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Correspondence to Naihao Ye.

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Teng, L., Fan, X., Nelson, D.R. et al. Diversity and evolution of cytochromes P450 in stramenopiles. Planta 249, 647–661 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-3028-1

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Keywords

  • Cytochrome P450
  • Comparative genomics
  • Molecular evolution
  • Stramenopiles