Genotypic and heat stress effects on leaf cuticles of field pea using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy
- 108 Downloads
ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with uni- and multivariate analysis was used to quantify the spectral–chemical composition of the leaf cuticle of pea, investigating the effects of variety and heat stress.
Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is sensitive to heat stress and our goal was to improve canopy cooling and flower retention by investigating the protective role of lipid-related compounds in leaf cuticle, and to use results in the future to identify heat resistant genotypes. The objective was to use Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique, to investigate and quantify changes in adaxial cuticles of fresh leaves of pea varieties that were subjected to heat stress. Eleven varieties were grown under control (24/18 °C day/night) and heat stress conditions (35/18 °C day/night, for 5 days at the early flowering stage). These 11 had significant spectral differences in the integrated area of the main lipid region, CH2 region, CH3 peak, asymmetric and symmetric CH2 peaks, ester carbonyl peak, and the peak area ratio of CH2 to CH3 and ester carbonyl to CH2 asymmetric peak, indicating that cuticles had spectral–chemical diversity of waxes, cutin, and polysaccharides. Results indicated considerable diversity in spectral–chemical makeup of leaf cuticles within commercially available field pea varieties and they responded differently to high growth temperature, revealing their diverse potential to resist heat stress. The ATR-FTIR spectral technique can, therefore, be further used as a medium-throughput approach for rapid screening of superior cultivars for heat tolerance.
KeywordsPisum sativum Heat stress Infrared Leaf wax Lipid Plant cuticle
This study was financially supported by the Saskatchewan Pulse Growers. The authors would like to thank Zhifa Wang from the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, for technical support and helpful assistance. Field traits were measured by the Crop Physiology field crew (Jason Denis, Brandon Louie, Dustin Maclean, Parminderjit Bangar) and Endale Tafesse. Research described in this paper was performed at the Canadian Light Source, which is supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the University of Saskatchewan, the Government of Saskatchewan, Western Economic Diversification Canada, the National Research Council Canada, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The authors would also like to thank Scott Rosendahl and Stuart Read for technical support and helpful assistance, both from the Canadian Light Source.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
- Baker MJ, Trevisan J, Bassan P, Bhargava R, Butler HJ, Dorling KM, Fielden PR, Fogarty SW, Fullwood NJ, Heys KA, Hughes C, Lasch P, Martin-Hirsch PL, Obinaju B, Sockalingum GD, Sule-Suso J, Strong RJ, Walsh MJ, Wood BR, Gardner P, Martin FL (2014) Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials. Nat Protoc 9:1771–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bueckert RA, Warkentin T, Tar’an B, Davis A (2016) SPG project final technical report: pea yield formation in warming temperatures—phenological mechanisms. http://saskpulse.com/. Accessed 20 Jul 2017
- FAOSTAT (2017) Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Available online at http://www.fao.org/faostat. Accessed 13 Jul 2017
- Fernandez V, Guzman-Delgado P, Graca J, Santos S, Gil L (2016) Cuticle structure in relation to chemical composition: re-assessing the prevailing model. Front Plant Sci 7:427Google Scholar
- Heredia-Guerrero JA, Benítez JJ, Domínguez E, Bayer IS, Cingolani R, Athanassiou A, Heredia A (2016) Infrared spectroscopy as a tool to study plant cuticles. Spectrosc Eur 28:10–13Google Scholar
- Hewitt EJ, Commonwealth Bureau of Horticulture and Plantation Crops (1952) Sand and water culture methods used in the study of plant nutrition. Sand and water culture methods used in the study of plant nutrition. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham RoyalGoogle Scholar
- SAS Institute (2010) SAS/STAT. Release 9.3. Cary, NC, USAGoogle Scholar
- Saxton AM (1998) A macro for converting mean separation output to letter groupings in Proc Mixed. Proc. 23rd SAS Users Group Intl., SAS Institute, Cary, NC. p 1243–1246Google Scholar
- Wetzel DL, Eilert AJ, Pietrzak LN, Miller SS, Sweat JA (1998) Ultraspatially-resolved synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy of plant tissue in situ. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 44:145–168Google Scholar