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Planta

, Volume 248, Issue 5, pp 1201–1211 | Cite as

Grapevine leafroll disease alters leaf physiology but has little effect on plant cold hardiness

  • Matthew M. Halldorson
  • Markus Keller
Original Article
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

Main conclusion

Foliar sugar accumulation in grapevines with leafroll disease was correlated with lower photosynthesis, likely due to feedback inhibition. However, cold acclimation of dormant tissues remained unaffected by the virus status.

Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV) contribute to losses in fruit yield and quality worldwide. Visually, leafroll disease symptoms appear similar to those associated with an imbalance in source/sink relations and a concomitant feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, which is often caused by an impasse in sugar translocation. In order to test this potential relationship and related physiological responses, leaf water status, gas exchange, non-structural carbohydrates, and dormant tissue cold hardiness were examined over 2 years in healthy and GLRaV-3-infected, field-grown Merlot grapevines. Diurnal and seasonal changes in leaf water status and gas exchange were dominated by variations in water availability, temperature, and leaf age, while GLRaV-3 infection contributed less to the overall variation. By contrast, foliar carbohydrates increased markedly in infected plants, with starch accumulating early in the growing season, followed by soluble sugar accumulation, leaf reddening, and declining gas exchange. Photosynthesis correlated negatively with leaf sugar content. However, dormant-season cold hardiness of buds and cane vascular tissues was similar in healthy and infected vines. These findings support the idea that visible symptoms of grapevine leafroll disease are a consequence of carbohydrate accumulation which, in turn, may lead to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. In addition, this study provided evidence that GLRaV-3 infection is unlikely to alter the susceptibility to moderate water deficit and winter damage in mature Merlot grapevines.

Keywords

Cold hardiness Grapevine leafroll-associated virus Leaf water potential Photosynthesis Non-structural carbohydrates Stomatal conductance Vitis vinifera 

Abbreviations

GLD

Grapevine leafroll disease

GLRaV

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus

gs

Stomatal conductance

Kh

Root-to-stem hydraulic conductance

LT10

Temperature causing 10% phloem or xylem injury

LT50

Lethal temperature for 50% of dormant buds

NSC

Non-structural carbohydrates

Pn

Leaf net photosynthetic rate

Ψpd

Predawn leaf water potential

Ψs

Midday stem water potential

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank an anonymous grower and Naidu Rayapati for access to their vineyard trial, Peter Cousins for sharing his unpublished leaf disk assay, and Lynn Mills for technical assistance. This work was partly funded by the American Vineyard Foundation and Washington State University’s Department of Horticulture and Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center.

Supplementary material

425_2018_2967_MOESM1_ESM.docx (204 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 204 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Horticulture, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension CenterWashington State UniversityProsserUSA
  2. 2.Ste. Michelle Wine EstatesProsserUSA

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