Current advances in gibberellic acid (GA3) production, patented technologies and potential applications
- 478 Downloads
Gibberellic acid is a plant growth hormone that promotes cell expansion and division. Studies have aimed at optimizing and reducing production costs, which could make its application economically viable for different cultivars.
Gibberellins consist of a large family of plant growth hormones discovered in the 1930s, which are synthesized via the terpenes route from the geranylgeranyl diphosphate and feature a basic structure formed by an ent-gibberellane tetracyclic skeleton. Among them, only four have biological activity, including gibberellic acid (GA3), which acts as a natural plant growth regulator, especially for stem elongation, seed germination, and increased fruit size. It can be obtained from plants, fungi, and bacteria. There are also some reports about microalgae GA3 producers. Fungi, especially Gibberella fujikuroi, are preferred for GA3 production via submerged fermentation or solid-state fermentation. Many factors may affect its production, some of which are related to the control and scale-up of fermentation parameters. Different GA3 products are available on the market. They can be found in liquid or solid formulations containing only GA3 or a mixture of other biological active gibberellins, which can be applied on a wide variety of cultivars, including crops and fruits. However, the product’s cost still limits its large and continuous application. New low-cost and efficient GA3 production alternatives are surely welcome. This review deals with the latest scientific and technological advances on production, recovery, formulation, and applications of this important plant growth hormone.
KeywordsPlant growth regulators Fusarium fujikuroi Submerged fermentation Alternative substrate Downstream Formulation
This research was supported by National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.
- Albermann S, Elter T, Teubner A et al (2013) Characterization of novel mutants with an altered gibberellin spectrum in comparison to different wild-type strains of Fusarium fujikuroi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:7779–7790. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-013-4917-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Alvarenga R, Moraes JC, Auad AM et al (2017) Induction of resistance of corn plants to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by application of silicon and gibberellic acid. Bull Entomol Res. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485316001176 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Berríos J, Illanes A, Aroca G (2004) Spectrophotometric method for determining gibberellic acid in fermentation broths. Biotechnol Lett 26:67–70. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BILE.0000009463.98203.8b CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Brian PW, Radley ME, Brian PW, et al (1958) Gibberellic acid compounds, and preparation and use thereof. US 2842051, 1–9Google Scholar
- Christiaens A, Dhooghe E, Pinxteren D, Van Labeke MC (2012) Flower development and effects of a cold treatment and a supplemental gibberellic acid application on flowering of Helleborus niger and Helleborus x ericsmithii. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 136:145–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.01.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conab (2016) Acompanhamento da safra brasileira de grãos. v. 9 Safra 2015/16 1–178Google Scholar
- Datta R, Vasek GJ, Pasieta LM (2006) Liquid formulation of a plant growth regulator. US 0172890, 1–5Google Scholar
- Devisetty BN, Beach RM, Menendez RA, Warrior P (2006) Concentrated, water-soluble, granular plant growth regulator formulation and methods for use of same. US 6984609, 1–8Google Scholar
- Devisetty BN, Pienaar JD, Fritts R, Venburg GD (2015) Low voc gibberellins formulations. US 20150173365, 1–12Google Scholar
- Geary RJ, Beach V, Haber R (1962) Plant growth regulator. US 3038794, 1–4Google Scholar
- Horvitz S, Godoy C, Camelo AFL et al (2002) Application of gibberellic acid to’Sweetheart’sweet cherries: effects on fruit quality at harvest and during cold storage. XXVI Int Hortic Congr Issues Adv Postharvest Hortic 628:311–316. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2003.628.37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- La Pierre RJ, Iselin NJ (1961) Stable formulations of plant growth stimulant. US 3004845, 1–4Google Scholar
- Machado CMM, Oliveira BH, Pandey A, Soccol RC (2001) Coffee husk as substrate for the production of gibberellic acid by fermentation. In: Sera T, Soccol CR, Pandey A, Roussos S (eds) Book on coffee biotechnology and quality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dorcrecht, pp 401–408Google Scholar
- MacLeod AM, Millar AS (1962) Effects of gibberellic acid on barley endosperm. J Inst Brew 68:322–332. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.1962.tb01873.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pawlak JA (2016) Gibberellin formulations. US 20160360748, 1–8Google Scholar
- Rademacher W, Schneider K-H, Kober R, et al (1999) Plant growth regulating formulations. WO/2000/002454A1Google Scholar
- Rangaswamy V (2012) Improved production of gibberellic acid by Fusarium moniliforme. J Microbiol Res 2:51–55. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.microbiology.20120203.02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rios-Iribe EY, Flores-Cotera LB, Chávira MMG et al (2011) Inductive effect produced by a mixture of carbon source in the production of gibberellic acid by Gibberella fujikuroi. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:1499–1505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-0603-4 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rios-iribe EY, Hernández-Calderón OM, Escamilla-silva EM (2016) Kinetic analysis of the uptake of glucose and corn oil used as carbon sources in batch cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32:182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-016-2139-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rodrigues C (2010) Produção, extração e purificação de hormônio vegetal (ácido giberélico) por fermentação no estado sólido em polpa cítrica e utilização do extrato fermentado em meio de cultivo de bromélias in vitro. Universidade Federal do ParanáGoogle Scholar
- Rodrigues C, Oliveira J, Vandenberghe LPDS, Soccol CR (2012b) Processo de produção e purificação de ácido giberélico, seu uso e aplicações. BR n. 102012008883-5A2Google Scholar
- Rodrigues C, Vandenberghe LPS, Goyzueta LD, Soccol CR (2016) Production, extraction and purification of gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation using citric pulp and soy husk. Baoj Chem 2:8Google Scholar
- Carvalho C de, Kist BB, Santos CE dos, et al. (2017) Brazilian fruit yearbook. Ed. Gaz. 88Google Scholar
- Selvaraj S, Murty VR (2017) Semi-solid state fermentation: a promising method for production and optimization of tannase from Bacillus gottheilii M2S2. Res J Biotechnol 12:39–48Google Scholar
- Senior N, Park A (1962) Dry formulations of gibberellic acid compounds. US 3031290, 1–3Google Scholar
- Shomeili M, Nabipour M, Meskarbashee M, Memari HR (2011) Effects of gibberellic acid on sugarcane plants exposed to salinity under a hydroponic system. J Afr Plant Sci 5:609–616Google Scholar
- Shukla R, Chand S, Srivastava AK (2007) Production of gibberellic acid by multiple fed-batch cultivation of Gibberella fujikuroi. Chem Biochem Eng 21:159–162Google Scholar
- Taiz L, Zeiger E (2009) Fisiologia vegetal, 4a. Artmed, Porto AlegreGoogle Scholar
- Uthandi S, Karthikeyan S, Sabarinathan KG (2010) Gibberellic acid production by Fusarium fujikuroi SG2. J Sci Ind Res 69:211–214Google Scholar
- Wang Y, Warrior P, Lone A, et al (2013) Stable S-(+)- Abscisic acid liquid and soluble granule formulations. US 8454982, 1–8Google Scholar
- Yamaguchi S (2008) Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:225–251. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar