, Volume 248, Issue 5, pp 1049–1062 | Cite as

Current advances in gibberellic acid (GA3) production, patented technologies and potential applications

  • Marcela C. Camara
  • Luciana P. S. VandenbergheEmail author
  • Cristine Rodrigues
  • Juliana de Oliveira
  • Craig Faulds
  • Emmanuel Bertrand
  • Carlos R. Soccol


Main conclusion

Gibberellic acid is a plant growth hormone that promotes cell expansion and division. Studies have aimed at optimizing and reducing production costs, which could make its application economically viable for different cultivars.

Gibberellins consist of a large family of plant growth hormones discovered in the 1930s, which are synthesized via the terpenes route from the geranylgeranyl diphosphate and feature a basic structure formed by an ent-gibberellane tetracyclic skeleton. Among them, only four have biological activity, including gibberellic acid (GA3), which acts as a natural plant growth regulator, especially for stem elongation, seed germination, and increased fruit size. It can be obtained from plants, fungi, and bacteria. There are also some reports about microalgae GA3 producers. Fungi, especially Gibberella fujikuroi, are preferred for GA3 production via submerged fermentation or solid-state fermentation. Many factors may affect its production, some of which are related to the control and scale-up of fermentation parameters. Different GA3 products are available on the market. They can be found in liquid or solid formulations containing only GA3 or a mixture of other biological active gibberellins, which can be applied on a wide variety of cultivars, including crops and fruits. However, the product’s cost still limits its large and continuous application. New low-cost and efficient GA3 production alternatives are surely welcome. This review deals with the latest scientific and technological advances on production, recovery, formulation, and applications of this important plant growth hormone.


Plant growth regulators Fusarium fujikuroi Submerged fermentation Alternative substrate Downstream Formulation 



This research was supported by National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcela C. Camara
    • 1
  • Luciana P. S. Vandenberghe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cristine Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Juliana de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Craig Faulds
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Bertrand
    • 2
  • Carlos R. Soccol
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology DepartmentFederal University of Paraná, Centro PolitécnicoCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Aix-Marseille Université, POLYTECH Marseille, UMR 1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons FilamenteuxMarseille Cedex 09France

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