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Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking

Abstract

Main conclusion

Defective cracking frequently occurs in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats, where proanthocyanidins accumulate and lignin is deposited, suggesting that proanthocyanidins and/or lignin may change physical properties and lead to defective cracking.

In the seed production of many yellow soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, very low percentages of self-pigmented seeds are commonly found. This phenomenon is derived from a recessive mutation of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation. In Japan, most of these self-pigmented seeds are buff-colored, and frequently show multiple defective cracks in the seed coat. However, it is not known why cracking occurs specifically in buff seed coats. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed between yellow and buff soybean seed coats. Compared with yellow soybeans, in which defective cracking rarely occurs, contents of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin were significantly higher in buff seed coats. Histochemical data of PAs and lignin in the seed coats strongly supported this result. Measurements of the physical properties of seed coats using a texture analyzer showed that a hardness value was significantly decreased in the buff seed coats. These results suggest that PA accumulation and/or lignin deposition may affect the physical properties of buff seed coats and lead to the defective cracking. This work contributes to understanding of the mechanism of defective cracking, which decreases the seed quality of soybean and related legumes.

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Abbreviations

CHS:

Chalcone synthase

DMACA:

4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde

PA:

Proanthocyanidin

TH:

cv. Toyohomare

THM:

Pigmented seed-coat mutant of Toyohomare

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan [Genomics-based Technology for Agricultural Improvement, SFC1006 (to MS, NY, HM and MK)] and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [KAKENHI, Grant Number 15K07268 (to MS)].

Author information

Correspondence to Mineo Senda.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplemental Fig. S1 Preparation of a section of seed coat for histological staining, showing three regions: hilum (H), middle (M) and dorsal (D) (PPTX 43 kb)

Supplemental Fig. S2 Cross-sections of hilum (H) regions in seed coats collected from R7 plants of cv. Toyohomare (TH) and pigmented seed-coat mutant (THM). Non-stained sections of the TH (a) and THM (b) seed coats. DMACA-stained sections of the TH (c) and THM (d) seed coats. Phloroglucinol-stained sections of the TH (e) and THM (f) seed coats. Scale bars 100 μm. Black regions around the tracheid bar (e, f) resulted from air bubbles entering between a section and a cover glass (PPTX 32582 kb)

Supplemental Fig. S3 Cross-sections of middle (M) regions in the seed coats collected from the R7 plants of cv. Toyohomare (TH) and pigmented seed-coat mutant (THM). Non-stained sections of the TH (a) and THM (b) seed coats. DMACA-stained sections of the TH (c) and THM (d) seed coats. Phloroglucinol-stained sections of the TH (e) and THM (f) seed coats. Scale bars 100 μm (PPTX 32542 kb)

Supplemental Fig. S4 Cross-sections of dorsal (D) regions in seed coats collected from R7 plants of cv. Toyohomare (TH) and pigmented seed-coat mutant (THM). Non-stained sections of the TH (a) and THM (b) seed coats. DMACA-stained sections of the TH (c) and THM (d) seed coats. Phloroglucinol-stained sections of the TH (e) and THM (f) seed coats. Scale bars 50 μm (PPTX 32693 kb)

Supplemental Fig. S5 Thickness of palisade layer in the seed coats of cv. Toyohomare (TH) and pigmented seed-coat mutant (THM). The seed coats were collected from the R7 plants. Vertical bars represent mean ± SD (n = 9 in TH, n = 9 in THM). Different letters show a significant difference between TH and THM at P < 0.05 by t-test (PPTX 40 kb)

Supplemental Fig. S6 A microscopic picture showing the beginning of the seed coat crack. A small crack is indicated by a black arrow. This picture was obtained from a non-stained seed coat section. The seed coat was isolated from an R6 plant of THM. pl palisade layer, hg hourglass layer. Scale bar 50 μm (PPTX 5480 kb)

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Senda, M., Yamaguchi, N., Hiraoka, M. et al. Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking. Planta 245, 659–670 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-016-2638-8

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Keywords

  • Cell wall components
  • DMACA
  • Histochemical analysis
  • Phloroglucinol
  • Physical property
  • Texture analysis