Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
- GA4 :
Abreu ME, Munné-Bosch S (2009) Salicylic acid deficiency in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants increases seed yield in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot 60:1261–1271
Arrom L, Munné-Bosch S (2010) Tocopherol composition in flower organs of Lilium and its variations during natural and artificial senescence. Plant Sci 179:289–295
Buchanan-Wollaston V, Page T, Harrison E, Breeze E, Lim PO, Nam HG, Lin JF, Wu SH, Swidzinski J, Ishizaki K, Leaver CJ (2005) Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals significant differences in gene expression and signalling pathways between developmental and dark/starvation-induced senescence in Arabidopsis. Plant J 42:567–585
Burchi G, Nesi B, Grassotti A, Mensuali-Sodi A, Ferranti A (2005) Longevity, ethylene production during development stages of two cultivars of Lilium flowers ageing on plant or in vase. Acta Hortic 682:813–820
Chang H, Jones ML, Banowetz GM, Clark DG (2003) Overproduction of cytokinins in Petunia flowers transformed with PSAG12-IPT delays corolla senescence, decreases sensitivity to ethylene. Plant Physiol 132:2174–2183
Elgar HG, Woolf AB, Bieleski RL (1999) Ethylene production by three lily species, their response. Postharvest Biol Technol 16:257–267
Gan S, Amasino RM (1995) Inhibition of leaf senescence by autoregulated production of cytokinin. Science 270:1986–1988
García-Heredia JM, Hervás M, De la Rosa MA, Navarro JÁ (2008) Acetylsalicylic acid induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures. Planta 228:89–97
Haberer G, Kieber JJ (2002) Cytokinins. New insights into a classic phytohormone. Plant Physiol 128:345–362
Hunter DA, Ferrante A, Vernieri P, Reid MS (2004) Role of abscisic acid in perianth senescence of daffodil. Physiol Plant 121:313–321
Judd WS, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA, Stevens PF, Donoghue MJ (2008) Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA
Melcher K, Xu Y, Ng LM, Zhou XE, Soon FF, Chinnusamy V, Suino-Powell KM, Kovach A, Tham FS, Cutler SR, Li J, Yong EL, Zhu JK, Xu HE (2010) Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism. Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:1102–1108
Morris K, Mackerness SAH, Page T, John CF, Murphy AM, Carr JP, Buchanan-Wollaston V (2000) Salicylic acid has a role in regulating gene expression during leaf senescence. Plant J 23:677–685
Nishimura N, Hitomi K, Arvai AS, Rambo RP, Hitomi C, Cutler SR, Schroeder JI, Getzoff ED (2009) Structural mechanism of abscisic acid binding and signaling by dimeric PYR1. Science 326:1373–1379
O’Neill SD (1997) Pollination regulation of flower development. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:547–574
Panavas T, Walker EL, Rubinstein B (1998) Possible involment of abscisic acid in senescence of daylily petals. J Exp Bot 49:1987–1997
Price AM, Orellana DFA, Salleh FM, Stevens R, Acock R, Buchanan-Wollaston V, Stead AD, Rogers HJ (2008) A comparison of leaf, petal senescence in wallflowers (Erysimum linifolium) reveals common, distinct patterns of gene expression, physiology. Plant Physiol 147:1898–1912
Ranwala AP, Miller WB (1998) Gibberellin4+7, benzyladenine, and supplemental light improve postharvest leaf and flower quality of cold-stored ‘Star Gazer’ hybrid lilies. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:563–568
Ranwala AP, Miller WB (2005) Effects of cold storage on postharvest leaf and flower quality of potted Oriental-Asiatic- and LA-hybrid lily cultivars. Sci Hortic 105:383–392
Reid MS, Chen JC (2007) Flower senescence. In: Gan S (ed) Senescence processes in plants, vol 26. Blackwell, Oxford
Rogers HJ (2006) Programmed cell death in floral organs: how, why do flowers die? Ann Bot 97:309–315
Rubinstein B (2000) Regulation of cell death in flower petals. Plant Mol Biol 44:303–318
Stead AD (1992) Pollination-induced cell death in flower senescence: a review. Plant Growth Regul 11:13–20
Valdivia ER, Cosgrove DJ, Stephenson AG (2006) Role of accelerated style senescence in pathogen defense. Am J Bot 93:1725–1729
van der Kop DAM, Ruys G, Dees D, van der Schoot C, de Boer AD, van Doorn WG (2003) Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in Iris and Dianthus petals. Physiol Plant 117:256–263
van Doorn WG, Han SS (2011) Postharvest quality of cut lily flowers. Postharvest Biol Technol 62:1–6
van Doorn WG, Woltering EJ (2008) Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence. J Exp Bot 58:453–480
Wagstaff C, Chanasut U, Harren FJM, Laarhoven L-J, Thomas B, Rogers HJ, Stead AD (2005) Ethylene, flower longevity in Alstroemeria: relationship between tepal senescence, abscission, ethylene biosynthesis. J Exp Bot 56:1007–1016
Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T (2003) Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot, root meristem activity. Plant Cell 15:2532–2550
Woltering EJ, van Doorn WG (1988) Role of ethylene in senescence of petals—morphological, taxonomical relationships. J Exp Bot 39:1605–1616
Woltering EJ, van Hout M, Somhorst D, Harren F (1993) Roles of pollination and short-chain saturated fatty acids in flower senescence. Plant Growth Regul 12:1–10
Zaffari GR, Peres LEP, Kerbauy GB (1998) Endogenous levels of cytokinins, indoleacetic acid, abscisic acid, pigments in variegated somaclones of micropropagated banana leaves. J Plant Growth Regul 17:59–61
Zhou Y, Wang CH, Ge H, Hoeberichts FA, Visser PB (2005) Programmed cell death in relation to petal senescence in ornamental plants. Acta Bot Sin 47:641–650
We are very grateful to the Serveis Científico-Tècnics and Serveis dels Camps Experimentals (Universitat de Barcelona) for technical assistance. Support for the research was received through the prize ICREA Academia given to S.M.-B., funded by the Generalitat de Catalunya.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Arrom, L., Munné-Bosch, S. Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium . Planta 236, 343–354 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-012-1615-0
- Abscisic acid
- Floral tissues
- Flower senescence