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Two FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologs in Chenopodium rubrum differ in expression patterns

Abstract

FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) like genes are crucial regulators (both positive and negative) of flowering in angiosperms. We identified two FT homologs in Chenopodium rubrum, a short-day species used as a model plant for the studies of photoperiodic flower induction. We found that CrFTL1 gene was highly inducible by a 12-h dark period, which in turn induced flowering. On the other hand, photoperiodic treatments that did not induce flowering (short dark periods, or a permissive darkness interrupted by a night break) caused only a slight increase in CrFTL1 mRNA level. We demonstrated diurnal oscillation of CrFTL1 expression with peaks in the middle of a light period. The oscillation persisted under constant darkness. Unlike FT homologs in rice and Pharbitis, the CrFTL1 expression under constant darkness was very low. The CrFTL2 gene showed constitutive expression. We suggest that the CrFTL1 gene may play a role as a floral regulator, but the function of CrFTL2 remains unknown.

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Abbreviations

AP1:

APETALA1

ATC:

Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homolog

BFT:

BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1

CEN:

CENTRORADIALIS

CrFL:

FLORICAULA/LEAFY

FT:

FLOWERING LOCUS T

FTL:

FLOWERING LOCUS T- like

Hd1:

Heading date 1

Hd3a:

Heading date 3a

MFT:

MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1

SP:

SELF PRUNING

TFL:

TERMINAL FLOWER

TSF:

TWIN SISTER OF FT

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Acknowledgments

We appreciate stimulating discussion and helpful comments by Frideta Seidlová and Ivana Macháčková of the Institute of Experimental Botany, Prague; Gary J. Houliston of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA; Edgar Wagner of the University of Freiburg, Germany; and two anonymous reviewers. We are thankful to Justyna Veit for designing some primer sequences and helping with qRT PCR optimization. The excellent technical assistance of Martina Dostálová was highly appreciated. Financial support was provided through the grants GACR 522/05/0300 to H.S. and Z-5038910 to IEB AS CR, v.v.i, Prague.

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Correspondence to Helena Štorchová.

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Cháb, D., Kolář, J., Olson, M.S. et al. Two FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologs in Chenopodium rubrum differ in expression patterns. Planta 228, 929 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-008-0792-3

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Keywords

  • Chenopodium
  • FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs
  • Flower induction
  • Gene expression
  • Night break