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Effects of aging and exercise training on mitochondrial function and apoptosis in the rat heart

Abstract

Aging is associated with vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Exercise training is associated with benefits against chronic cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aging and treadmill exercise training on mitochondrial function and apoptosis in the rat heart. Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YS; n = 10, 4 months), young exercise (YE; n = 10, 4 months), old sedentary (OS; n = 10, 20 months), and old exercise (OE; n = 10, 20 months) groups. Exercise training groups ran on a treadmill at 15 m/min (young) or 10 m/min (old), 45 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Morphological parameters, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis were analyzed in cardiac muscle. Mitochondrial O2 respiratory capacity and Ca2+ retention capacity gradually decreased, and mitochondrial H2O2 emitting potential significantly increased with aging. Exercise training attenuated aging-induced mitochondrial H2O2 emitting potential and mitochondrial O2 respiratory capacity, while protecting Ca2+ retention in the old groups. Aging triggered imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics and excess mitophagy, while exercise training ameliorated the aging-induced imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics and excess mitophagy. Aging induced increase in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 protein levels, while decreasing Bcl-2 levels. Exercise training protected against the elevation of apoptotic signaling markers by decreasing Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increasing Bcl-2 protein levels, while decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive myonuclei. These data demonstrate that regular exercise training prevents aging-induced impairment of mitochondrial function and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in cardiac muscles.

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Funding

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016S1A5A8018954).

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Correspondence to Hyo-Bum Kwak.

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This article is part of the special issue on Exercise Physiology: future opportunities and challenges in Pflügers Archiv—European Journal of Physiology

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No, M., Heo, J., Yoo, S. et al. Effects of aging and exercise training on mitochondrial function and apoptosis in the rat heart. Pflugers Arch - Eur J Physiol 472, 179–193 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-020-02357-6

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Keywords

  • Aging
  • Exercise
  • Mitochondrial function
  • Apoptosis
  • Heart