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Intra-abdominal sepsis: new definitions and current clinical standards

  • A. HeckerEmail author
  • M. Reichert
  • C. J. Reuß
  • T. Schmoch
  • J. G. Riedel
  • E. Schneck
  • W. Padberg
  • M. A. Weigand
  • M. Hecker
Review Article

Abstract

Purpose

The abdomen is the second most common source of sepsis and is associated with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Recently, the essential definitions of sepsis and septic shock were updated (Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock, Sepsis-3) and modified. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the changes introduced by Sepsis-3 and the current state of the art regarding the treatment of abdominal sepsis.

Results

While Sepsis-1/2 focused on detecting systemic inflammation as a response to infection, Sepsis-3 defines sepsis as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guideline, which was updated in 2016, recommends rapid diagnosis and initiating standardized therapy. New diagnostic tools, the establishment of antibiotic stewardship programs, and a host of new-generation antibiotics are new landmark changes in the sepsis literature of the last few years. Although the “old” surgical source control consisting of debridement, removal of infected devices, drainage of purulent cavities, and decompression of the abdominal cavity is the gold standard of surgical care, the timing of gastrointestinal reconstruction and closure of the abdominal cavity (“damage control surgery”) are discussed intensively in the literature. The SSC guidelines provide evidence-based sepsis therapy. Nevertheless, treating critically ill intensive care patients requires individualized, continuous daily re-evaluation and flexible therapeutic strategies, which can be best discussed in the interdisciplinary rounds of experienced surgeons and intensive care medicals.

Keywords

Sepsis-3 Surviving Sepsis Campaign SOFA qSOFA 

Abbreviations

SSC

Surviving Sepsis Campaign

SOFA

Sequential Organ Failure Assessment

qSOFA

quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment

WSES

World Society of Emergency Surgeons

SIRS

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

WHO

World Health Organization

PCT

Procalcitonin

CRP

C-reactive protein

MAP

Mean Arterial Pressure

POD

Postoperative Day

EGT

Early Goal–directed Therapy

ACS

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

AGORA

Antimicrobials: A global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections

MEDUSA

Medical Education for Sepsis Source Control and Antibiotics

ESCMID

European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

ICU

Intensive Care Unit

CVP

Central Venous Pressure

SaO2

Oxygen Saturation

ARDS

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors A.H., M.R., C.J.R., T.S., J.G.R., E.S., W.P., and M.H. declare that they have no conflict of interest. M.A.W. reports personal fees from MSD, personal fees from Pfizer, personal fees from Gilead, outside the submitted work. In addition, M.A.W. has a patent EP 17198330.7 issued.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General and Thoracic SurgeryUniversity Hospital of GiessenGießenGermany
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity Hospital of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity Hospital of GiessenGiessenGermany
  4. 4.Medical Clinic IIUniversity Hospital of GiessenGiessenGermany

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