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Yo-Yo intermittent tests are a valid tool for aerobic fitness assessment in recreational football

  • Carlo Castagna
  • Peter Krustrup
  • Susana PóvoasEmail author
Original Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the suitability of three versions and two levels of the Yo-Yo intermittent tests for assessing and tracking aerobic fitness status development in male recreational football players. Sixty-six untrained participants (age 39 ± 6 years, VO2max 41.2 ± 6.2 ml kg−1 min−1, body mass 81.9 ± 10.8 kg, height 173.2 ± 6.4 cm) partook in a 12-week recreational football training program. They were evaluated during the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 (YYIE1) and 2 (YYIE2) tests and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (YYIR1), and during a treadmill test for VO2max assessment, at baseline. Thirty-two out of these 66 participants replicated all these tests at post-intervention. An additional group of 30 male age-matched recreational football players that afterwards started the 12-week recreational football program (age 39 ± 6 years, VO2max 45.3 ± 5.8 ml kg−1 min−1, body mass 82.5 ± 7.8 kg, height 172.8 ± 5.4 cm) was evaluated at baseline to test cross-validation.

Results

The Yo-Yo tests showed very large associations with VO2max at baseline (r = 0.75–0.77; P < 0.0001) and at post-intervention (r = 0.76–0.82; P < 0.0005). Post-training, very large associations were found between YYIE2 performance and VO2max (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). Cross-validation revealed small to large differences between the observed and estimated VO2max values (1.5–2.96 ml kg−1 min−1) with moderate typical error of estimation (7.9–8.7%) across the tests. Performance in the YYIE1, YYIE2 and YYIR1 tests of ≥ 1760, 480 and 600 m, respectively, indicated good to excellent VO2max values.

Conclusions

The Yo-Yo tests considered here showed robust and consistent criterion validity. The YYIE2 could be a more accurate option to track aerobic fitness development in recreational football players.

Keywords

Soccer Team sports Maximal oxygen uptake Field tests Responsiveness Endurance 

Notes

Author contributions

Susana Póvoas and Carlo Castagna conceived and designed the research. Testing and data collection was performed by Susana Póvoas. Carlo Castagna and Susana Póvoas analyzed the data and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Peter Krustrup contributed for the study design, interpreted the results, and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any conflict of interests and state that the results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by EJAP. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fitness Training and Biomechanics Laboratory, Technical DepartmentItalian Football Federation (FIGC)FlorenceItaly
  2. 2.University of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC)University of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  4. 4.Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESDUniversity Institute of Maia, ISMAIMaiaPortugal

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