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Aerobic or resistance exercise performed the previous day does not attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in overweight/obese adults

  • Kevin D. BallardEmail author
  • Craig W. Berry
  • Conlan J. Varty
  • Kristina B. Arslain
  • Kyle L. Timmerman
Original Article

Abstract

Introduction

Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). A single bout of aerobic exercise (AE) attenuates PPH-induced decreases in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a non-invasive measure of VEF, in healthy adults for up to 17 h post-exercise. Studies examining the effects of resistance exercise (RE) on postprandial FMD responses are lacking.

Purpose

We hypothesized that a single bout of exercise performed the prior evening would attenuate PPH-induced decreases in FMD, independent of exercise modality.

Methods

In a randomized, cross-over design, overweight/obese adults [n = 11 (8 women); 22 ± 4 years; 32.3 ± 5.8 kg m−2] completed 3 separate trials: control (seated rest), AE (30 min at ~ 60% VO2max), or whole-body RE (30 min, 6 exercises, 3 × 10-repetition maximum). Each trial occurred 14–17 h prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Brachial artery FMD and plasma glucose and insulin were measured prior to and at 30-min intervals for 2 h following the OGTT. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to evaluate differences within and between trials.

Results

Trials occurred 15.3 ± 1.0 h prior to the OGTT. Relative to baseline, FMD transiently decreased (P < 0.05) at 30–60 min post-ingestion, plasma glucose increased (P < 0.01) at 30–90 min post-ingestion, and plasma insulin increased (P < 0.01) at 30–120 min post-ingestion. No between trial differences were observed for FMD, glucose, or insulin.

Conclusions

Aerobic or resistance exercise performed the evening prior to an OGTT does not attenuate postprandial decreases in brachial artery FMD in overweight/obese adults.

Keywords

Flow-mediation dilation Insulin Glucose Acute exercise 

Abbreviations

AE

Aerobic exercise

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

AUC

Area under the curve

BMI

Body mass index

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

FMD

Flow-mediated dilation

HDL-C

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

HOMA-IR

Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance

HR

Heart rate

LDL-C

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

NO

Nitric oxide

OGTT

Oral glucose tolerance test

PPH

Postprandial hyperglycemia

RE

Resistance exercise

RER

Respiratory exchange ratio

RM

Repetition maximum

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

TC

Total cholesterol

TG

Triglycerides

VEF

Vascular endothelial function

VO2max

Maximal oxygen consumption

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by a College of Education, Health, and Society Seed Grant and Miami University Committee for Faculty Research Award. The authors acknowledge the contributions of our participants.

Author contributions

KB, CB, and CV conceived and designed research. KB, CB, CV, and KA conducted experiments and analyzed data. KB and KT wrote the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Kinesiology and Health, College of Education, Health and SocietyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA

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