Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 8, pp 1725–1733 | Cite as

Acute effects of very low-volume high-intensity interval training on muscular fatigue and serum testosterone level vary according to age and training status

  • T. Venckunas
  • R. KrusnauskasEmail author
  • A. Snieckus
  • N. Eimantas
  • N. Baranauskiene
  • A. Skurvydas
  • M. Brazaitis
  • S. Kamandulis
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To compare the acute physiological responses of three different very low-volume cycling sessions (6 × 5 s, 3 × 30 s, and 3 × 60 s) and their dependence on age and training status.

Methods

Subjects were untrained young men (mean ± SD; age 22.3 ± 4.6 years, VO2peak 42.4 ± 5.5 ml/kg/min, n = 10), older untrained men (69.9 ± 6.3 years, 26.5 ± 7.6 ml/kg/min, n = 11), and endurance-trained cyclists (26.4 ± 9.4 years, 55.4 ± 6.6 ml/kg/min, n = 10). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electrically stimulated knee extension torque, and low-frequency fatigue, as ratio of stimulation torques at 20–100 Hz (P20/100), were measured only 24 h after exercise. Serum testosterone (Te) and blood lactate concentrations were measured only 1 h after exercise.

Results

All protocols increased the blood lactate concentration and decreased MVC and P20/100 in young men, but especially young untrained men. In old untrained men, 6 × 5 s decreased P20/100 but not MVC. Te increased after 3 × 30 s and 3 × 60 s in young untrained men and after 3 × 60 s in older untrained men. The increase in Te correlated with responses of blood lactate concentration, MVC, and P20/100 only in old untrained men.

Conclusions

As little as 6 × 5 s all-out cycling induced fatigue in young and old untrained and endurance-trained cyclists. Slightly higher-volume sessions with longer intervals, however, suppressed contractile function more markedly and also transiently increased serum testosterone concentration in untrained men.

Keywords

Anabolic response Low-frequency fatigue High-intensity interval training Sprint interval training 

Abbreviations

HIIT

High-intensity interval training

HR

Heart rate

LFF

Low-frequency fatigue

MVC

Maximal voluntary contraction

SD

Standard deviation

SIT

Sprint interval training

Te

Serum testosterone concentration

VO2peak

Peak oxygen uptake

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Research Council of Lithuania [Grant no. SEN-08/2016].

Author contributions

Venckunas T, Krusnauskas R, Snieckus A, Eimantas N, Baranauskiene N, Skurvydas A, Brazaitis M, Kamandulis S. TV, RK, AS, NE, NB, AS, MB, and SK designed the study; RK, AS, NE, NB and MB conducted the study; TV, RK, AS, NE, NB, AS, MB, and SK analysed the data; TV, RK, AS, AS and SK wrote the paper. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aguirre L, Jan I, Fowler K, Walters D, Villareal D, Armamento-Villareal R (2014) Testosterone and adipokines are determinants of physical performance, strength, and aerobic fitness in frail, obese, older adults. Int J Endocrinol 2014:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson K, Hellstrand P (2012) Dietary oats and modulation of atherogenic pathways. Mol Nutr Food Res 56:1003–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagley L, Slevin M, Bradburn S, Liu D, Murgatroyd C, Morrissey G, Carroll M, Piasecki M, Gilmore WS, McPhee JS (2016) Sex differences in the effects of 12 weeks sprint interval training on body fat mass and the rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max during exercise. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2(1):e000056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagley L, Al-Shanti N, Bradburn S, Baig O, Slevin M, McPhee J (2018) Sex comparison of knee extensor size, Strength and fatigue adaptation to sprint interval training. J Strength Cond Res.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002496 Google Scholar
  5. Buchheit M, Laursen P (2013) High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle: part i: cardiopulmonary emphasis. Sports Med 43(5):313–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchheit M, Laursen P (2013b) High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part II: anaerobic energy, neuromuscular load and practical applications. Sports Med 43(10):927–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, Rakobowchuk M, Macdonald MJ, McGee SL, Gibala MJ (2008) Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol 586:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Degens H, Stasiulis A, Skurvydas A, Statkeviciene B, Venckunas T. Physiological comparison between non-athletes, endurance, power and team athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04128-3 Google Scholar
  9. Garatachea N, Pareja-Galeano H, Sanchis-Gomar F, Santos-Lozano A, Fiuza-Luces C, Morán M, Emanuele E, Joyner MJ, Lucia A (2015) Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging. Rejuvenation Res 18:57–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gehlert S, Suhr F, Gutsche K, Willkomm L, Kern J, Jacko D, Knicker A, Schiffer T, Wackerhage H, Bloch W (2015) High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension. Pflugers Arch 467(1343–56):13Google Scholar
  11. Gibala MJ (2007) High-intensity interval training: A time-efficient strategy for health promotion? Curr Sports Med Rep 6:211–213Google Scholar
  12. Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, Wilkin GP, Burgomaster KA, Safdar A, Raha S, Tarnopolsky MA (2006) Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. J Physiol 575:901–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gibala M, Little J, Macdonald M, Hawley J (2012) Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 590:1077–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gotshalk LA, Loebel CC, Nindl BC, Putukian M, Sebastianelli WJ, Newton RU, Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ (1997) Hormonal responses of multiset versus single-set heavy-resistance exercise protocols. Can J Appl Physiol Rev Can Physiol Appl 22:244–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grey T, Spencer M, Belfry G, Kowalchuk J, Paterson D, Murias J (2015) Effects of age and long-term endurance training on VO2 kinetics. Med Sci Sports Exerc 47:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hayes L, Herbert P, Sculthorpe N, Grace F (2017) Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men. Endocr Connect 6:306–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones DA (1996) High-and low-frequency fatigue revisited. Acta Physiol Scand 156:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kadi F (2008) Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the action of testosterone on human skeletal muscle. A basis for illegal performance enhancement. Br J Pharmacol 154:522–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kamandulis S, de Souza Leite F, Hernandez A, Katz A, Brazaitis M, Bruton J, Venckunas T, Masiulis N, Mickeviciene D, Eimantas N, Subocius A, Rassier D, Skurvydas A, Ivarsson N, Westerblad H (2017) Prolonged force depression after mechanically demanding contractions is largely independent of Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. FASEB J 31:4809–4820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kamandulis S, Bruzas V, Mockus P, Stasiulis A, Snieckus A, Venckunas T (2018) Sport-specific repeated sprint training improves punching ability and upper-body aerobic power in experienced amateur boxers. J Strength Cond Res 32:1214–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kilian Y, Engel F, Wahl P, Achtzehn S, Sperlich B, Mester J (2016) Markers of biological stress in response to a single session of high-intensity interval training and high-volume training in young athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:2177–2186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krusnauskas R, Venckunas T, Snieckus A, Eimantas N, Baranauskiene N, Skurvydas A, Brazaitis M, Liubinskiene A, Kamandulis S (2018) Very Low Volume high-intensity interval exercise is more effective in young than old women. BioMed Res Int 2018:8913187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Laursen PB, Jenkins DG (2002) The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training: optimising training programmes and maximising performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Sports Med Auckl NZ 32:53–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee D, Artero EG, Sui X, Blair SN (2010) Mortality trends in the general population: the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness. J Psychopharmacol Oxf Engl 24:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Little JP, Safdar A, Wilkin GP, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ (2010) A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. J Physiol 588(Pt6):1011–1022.  https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2009.181743 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin J, Ramsey J, Hughes C, Peters D, Edwards M (2015) Age and grip strength predict hand dexterity in adults. PLoS One 10:e0117598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Metter E, Conwit R, Tobin J, Fozard J (1997) Age-associated loss of power and strength in the upper extremities in women and men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52:B267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morton RW, Sato K, Gallaugher MPB, Oikawa SY, McNicholas PD, Fujita S, Phillips SM (2018) Muscle androgen receptor content but not systemic hormones is associated with resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in healthy, young men. Front Physiol 9(9):1373.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01373 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Leary C, Hackney A (2014) Acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on the testosterone and cortisol responses in obese males: a systematic review. Physiol Res 63:693–704Google Scholar
  30. Paulsen G, Cumming KT, Holden G, Hallén J, Rønnestad BR, Sveen O, Skaug A, Paur I, Bastani NE, Østgaard HN, Buer C, Midttun M, Freuchen F, Wiig H, Ulseth ET, Garthe I, Blomhoff R, Benestad HB, Raastad T (2014) Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. J Physiol. 592(8):1887–1901.  https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2013.267419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peltonen H, Walker S, Hackney A, Avela J, Hakkinen K (2018) Increased rate of force development during periodized maximum strength and power training is highly individual. Eur J Appl Physiol 118:1033–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Place N, Ivarsson N, Venckunas T, Neyroud D, Brazaitis M, Cheng AJ, Ochala J, Kamandulis S, Girard S, Volungevičius G, Pauzas H, Mekideche A, Kayser B, Martinez-Redondo V, Ruas JL, Bruton J, Truffert A, Lanner JT, Skurvydas A, Westerblad H (2015) Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:15492–15497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Powers SK, Talbert EE, Adhihetty PJ (2011) Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as intracellular signals in skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 589(Pt 9):2129–2138.  https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.201327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scribbans TD, Edgett BA, Vorobej K, Mitchell AS, Joanisse SD, Matusiak JBL, Parise G, Quadrilatero J, Gurd BJ (2014) Fibre-specific responses to endurance and low volume high intensity interval training: striking similarities in acute and chronic adaptation. PLoS One 9(6):e98119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Skurvydas A, Mamkus G, Kamandulis S, Dudoniene V, Valanciene D, Westerblad H (2016) Mechanisms of force depression caused by different types of physical exercise studied by direct electrical stimulation of human quadriceps muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:2215–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sökmen B, Witchley R, Adams G, Beam W (2018) Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32:624–631Google Scholar
  37. Vaara J, Kokko J, Isoranta M, Kyröläinen H (2015) Effects of added resistance training on physical fitness, body composition, and serum hormone concentrations during eight weeks of special military. J Strength Cond Res 29:S168–S172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Venckunas T, Snieckus A, Trinkunas E, Baranauskiene N, Solianik R, Juodsnukis A, Streckis V, Kamandulis S (2016) Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30:2114–2121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Verbickas V, Kamandulis S, Snieckus A, Venckunas T, Baranauskiene N, Brazaitis M, Satkunskiene D, Unikauskas A, Skurvydas A (2018) Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6 response to high-volume mechanically demanding exercise. Muscle Nerve 57:E46–E51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vicencio JM, Estrada M, Galvis D, Bravo R, Contreras AE, Rotter D, Szabadkai G, Hill JA, Rothermel BA, Jaimovich E, Lavandero S (2011) Anabolic androgenic steroids and intracellular calcium signaling: a mini review on mechanisms and physiological implications. Mini Rev Med Chem 11:390–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Venckunas
    • 1
  • R. Krusnauskas
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Snieckus
    • 1
  • N. Eimantas
    • 1
  • N. Baranauskiene
    • 1
  • A. Skurvydas
    • 1
  • M. Brazaitis
    • 1
  • S. Kamandulis
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Sport Science and InnovationsLithuanian Sports UniversityKaunasLithuania

Personalised recommendations