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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 5, pp 1043–1053 | Cite as

Effects of chronic beetroot juice supplementation on maximum oxygen uptake, velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake, and peak velocity in recreational runners: a double-blinded, randomized and crossover study

  • Talitha F. de Castro
  • Francisco de Assis Manoel
  • Diogo H. Figueiredo
  • Diego H. Figueiredo
  • Fabiana Andrade MachadoEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the effects of chronic 3-day beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), velocity associated with VO2max(vVO2max), and peak velocity (Vpeak) in recreational runners.

Methods

Thirteen male recreational runners (age 28.2 ± 3.0 years, height 176.8 ± 0.1 cm, body mass 74.4 ± 9.5 kg) performed four tests on a treadmill in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design: two maximum incremental tests to determine VO2max and vVO2max, and two tests to determine Vpeak. Trials were performed following 3 days of supplementation of NO3-rich BRJ in natura (8.4 mmol NO3 day− 1) or BRJ NO3-depleted placebo (0.01 mmol NO3 day− 1), with the last dose being ingested 2 h before each test. During the tests, maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPEmax), pre- and post-test glucose concentrations (Glucpre, Glucpost), and peak blood lactate concentration were determined.

Results

VO2max was higher following BRJ vs PLA (46.6 ± 6.4 vs 45.1 ± 5.8 mL kg− 1 min− 1; P = 0.022), as well as vVO2max (14.5 ± 0.8 vs 13.9 ± 1.0 km h− 1P = 0.024) and Vpeak (15.5 ± 1.1 vs 15.2 ± 1.2 km h− 1P = 0.038), with no differences in the other variables.

Conclusion

Consumption of NO3-rich BRJ in natura (8.4 mmol NO3 day− 1) once per day for 3 days improved VO2max, vVO2max and Vpeak in recreational runners without changing the other analyzed variables.

Keywords

Nitrate supplementation Nitric oxide Running Exercise nutritional science Physical endurance 

Abbreviations

LA

Blood lactate concentration

LApeak

Peak blood lactate concentration

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

BRJ

Beetroot juice supplementation

ES

Effect size

Glucpre

Pre-glucose concentrations

Glucpost

Post-glucose concentrations

HR

Heart rate

HRmax

Maximum heart rate

Inc

Speed increment

NaNO3

Sodium nitrate

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

NO2

Nitrite

NO3

Inorganic nitrate

O2

Oxygen

PCr

Phosphocreatine

Pi

Inorganic phosphate

PLA

Placebo

P/O

Phosphate/oxygen ratio

RE

Running economy

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

RPEmax

Maximal rating of perceived exertion

SIRT1

Regulatory protein sirtuin

T

Number of seconds required to complete a stage

t

Number of seconds sustained during the incomplete stage

Vcomplete

Running velocity of the last complete stage

VO2

Oxygen uptake

VO2max

Maximum oxygen uptake

Vpeak

Peak velocity

vVO2max

Velocity associated with VO2max

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the participants for their time and effort in this study.

Author contributions

All authors of this research paper have directly participated in the planning, execution, writing and analysis of this study. All authors of this paper have read and approved the final version submitted.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Talitha F. de Castro
    • 1
  • Francisco de Assis Manoel
    • 2
  • Diogo H. Figueiredo
    • 2
  • Diego H. Figueiredo
    • 2
  • Fabiana Andrade Machado
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Post-graduate Program of Physiological Sciences, Department of Physiological SciencesState University of Maringá-PRMaringáBrazil
  2. 2.Associate Post-graduate Program in Physical Education UEM/UEL, Department of Physical EducationState University of Maringá-PRMaringáBrazil

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