Effects of a highly intensive clean and jerk exercise on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in experienced non-professional weight lifters

  • Fabian TomschiEmail author
  • Esther Rautenberg
  • Eduard Isenmann
  • Hannah Ottmann
  • Wilhelm Bloch
  • Marijke Grau
Original Article



Weight lifting training has gained much popularity in recent years and is frequently used in non-professional and professional settings. However, little is known about the acute effects of a highly intensive weight lifting exercise (clean and jerk) on the hemodynamic reaction.


18 non-professional experienced weight lifters were recruited. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained and measured at baseline (T1), after warming up (T2), and after a highly intensive clean and jerk exercise (90–95% of personal best; T3). Further, 15 (T4), and 30 min (T5) post-exercise measurements were conducted. Evaluated parameters were heart rate (HR) (b/min), peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (pSysBP, pDiaBP, cSysBP, cDiaBP) (mmHg), pulse wave velocity (PWV) (m/s), and double product (DP).


All hemodynamic values increased from T1 up to T3 with significantly higher values measured at T3 compared to T1 and T2. Values of measured parameters at T3 were as follows: HR: 94.4 ± 15.6 b/min, pSysBP: 147.1 ± 15.9 mmHg, pDiaBP: 87.4 ± 12.2 mmHg, cSysBP: 129.3 ± 13.8 mmHg, cDiaBP: 89.9 ± 12.8 mmHg, and: 5.8 ± 0.5 m/s, DP: 14053 ± 3669. Post-exercise (T4, T5), all values returned to baseline levels.


Results indicate that a highly intensive weight lifting exercise led to an acute increase of blood pressure and an acute stiffening of the arteries. Yet, increases were moderate and did not reach disproportionately high levels and returned to baseline levels within 15 min post-exercise. Hence, no negative acute effects of a maximum weight lifting exercise on the hemodynamic system are observed.


Arterial stiffness Resistance training Weight lifting Clean and jerk Blood pressure Arterial compliance 



Analyses of variance


Arterial stiffness


Blood pressure


Central diastolic blood pressure


Central systolic blood pressure


Double product


Millimeter of mercury


Meter per second


Nitric oxide


Peripheral diastolic blood pressure


Peripheral systolic blood pressure


Pulse wave velocity


Resistance training


Weight lifting



The authors would like to thank Anke Schmitz for her excellent technical support.

Author contributions

The contributions of the authors were as follows: FT and ER had the original idea for the study. FT, HO, ER, EI contributed to conception or design of the study and analysis or interpretation of the data of the present study. FT and ER drafted the manuscript and HO, EI, WB and MG critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Supplementary material

421_2019_4080_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (10 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 9 KB)


  1. Arabatzi F, Kellis E, Saèz-Saez De Villarreal E (2010) Vertical jump biomechanics after plyometric, weight lifting, and combined (weight lifting + plyometric) training. J Strength Cond Res 24(9):2440–2448. Google Scholar
  2. Ashor AW, Lara J, Siervo M, Celis-Morales C, Mathers JC (2014) Effects of exercise modalities on arterial stiffness and wave reflection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PloS One 9(10):e110034. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Berge HM, Isern CB, Berge E (2015) Blood pressure and hypertension in athletes: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 49(11):716–723. Google Scholar
  4. Bertovic DA, Waddell TK, Gatzka CD, Cameron JD, Dart AM, Kingwell BA (1999) Muscular strength training is associated with low arterial compliance and high pulse pressure. Hypertension 33(6):1385–1391. Google Scholar
  5. Braith RW, Stewart KJ (2006) Resistance exercise training: its role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 113(22):2642–2650. Google Scholar
  6. Carpio-Rivera E, Moncada-Jiménez J, Salazar-Rojas W, Solera-Herrera A (2016) Acute effects of exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analytic investigation. Arq Bras Cardiol 106(5):422–433. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen C-Y, Bonham AC (2010) Postexercise hypotension: central mechanisms. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 38(3):122–127. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. DeVan AE, Anton MM, Cook JN, Neidre DB, Cortez-Cooper MY, Tanaka H (2005) Acute effects of resistance exercise on arterial compliance. J Appl Physio (Bethesda Md 1985) 98(6):2287–2291. Google Scholar
  9. ESH/ESC Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension (2013) 2013 Practice guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC): ESH/ESC Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. J Hypertens 31(10):1925–1938. Google Scholar
  10. Fletcher GF, Cantwell JD, Watt EW (1979) Oxygen consumption and hemodynamic response of exercises used in training of patients with recent myocardial infarction. Circulation 60(1):140–144Google Scholar
  11. Güzel NA, Hazar S, Erbas D (2007) Effects of different resistance exercise protocols on nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and creatine kinase activity in sedentary males. J Sports Sci Med 6(4):417–422PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Häkkinen K, Komi PV, Alén M, Kauhanen H (1987) EMG, muscle fibre and force production characteristics during a 1 year training period in elite weight-lifters. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 56(4):419–427Google Scholar
  13. Holmberg PM (2013) Weightlifting to improve volleyball performance. Strength Cond J 35(2):79–88. Google Scholar
  14. Karras A, Haymann J-P, Bozec E, Metzger M, Jacquot C, Maruani G, Houillier P, Froissart M, Stengel B, Guardiola P, Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Briet M (2012) Large artery stiffening and remodeling are independently associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease. Hypertension (Dallas Tex 1979) 60(6):1451–1457. Google Scholar
  15. Kenney MJ, Seals DR (1993) Postexercise hypotension. Key features, mechanisms, and clinical significance. Hypertension (Dallas Tex 1979) 22(5):653–664Google Scholar
  16. Ketelhut S, Milatz F, Heise W, Ketelhut RG (2016) Influence of a high-intensity interval training session on peripheral and central blood pressure at rest and during stress testing in healthy individuals. VASA 45(5):373–377. Google Scholar
  17. Kim EJ, Park CG, Park JS, Suh SY, Choi CU, Kim JW, Kim SH, Lim HE, Rha SW, Seo HS, Oh DJ (2007) Relationship between blood pressure parameters and pulse wave velocity in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: invasive study. J Hum Hypertens 21(2):141–148. Google Scholar
  18. Kingsley JD, Mayo X, Tai YL, Fennell C (2016) Arterial stiffness and autonomic modulation after free-weight resistance exercises in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(12):3373–3380. Google Scholar
  19. Li Y, Bopp M, Botta F, Nussbaumer M, Schäfer J, Roth R, Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Hanssen H (2015) Lower body vs. upper body resistance training and arterial stiffness in young men. Int J Sports Med 36(12):960–967. Google Scholar
  20. McEniery CM, Cockcroft JR, Roman MJ, Franklin SS, Wilkinson IB (2014) Central blood pressure: current evidence and clinical importance. Eur Heart J 35(26):1719–1725. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Miyachi M, Donato AJ, Yamamoto K, Takahashi K, Gates PE, Moreau KL, Tanaka H (2003) Greater age-related reductions in central arterial compliance in resistance-trained men. Hypertension (Dallas Tex 1979) 41(1):130–135Google Scholar
  22. Müller J, Wilms M, Oberhoffer R (2015) Acute effects of submaximal endurance training on arterial stiffness in healthy middle- and long-distance runners. J Clin Hypertens 17(5):371–374. Google Scholar
  23. Nitzsche N, Weigert M, Baumgärtel L, Auerbach T, Schuffenhauer D, Nitzsche R, Schulz H (2016) Acute effects of different strength training protocols on arterial stiffness in healthy subjects. Int J Sports Sci 6(5):195–202. Google Scholar
  24. O’Rourke MF, Staessen JA, Vlachopoulos C, Duprez D, Plante GE (2002) Clinical applications of arterial stiffness; definitions and reference values. Am J Hypertens 15(5):426–444Google Scholar
  25. Otto WH, Coburn JW, Brown LE, Spiering BA (2012) Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 26(5):1199–1202. Google Scholar
  26. Picón MM, Chulvi IM, Cortell J-MT, Tortosa J, Alkhadar Y, Sanchís J, Laurentino G (2018) Acute cardiovascular responses after a single bout of blood flow restriction training. Int J Exerc Sci 11(2):20–31PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Saka T, Sekir U, Dogan A, Akkurt S, Karakus M, Celebi MM, Sarli B, Oguzhan A (2016) Arterial stiffness differences between aerobically and resistance trained turkish elite athletes. Br J Sports Med 50(Suppl 1):A40.2–A40. Google Scholar
  28. Senna GW, Scudese E, Silva-Grigoletto MED, Alias A, Fuqua JD, Brandão PP, Dantas EHM (2018) Post resistance exercise hypotension on distinct types of somatotype characteristics. J Hum Sport Exerc. Google Scholar
  29. Simão R, Fleck SJ, Polito M, Monteiro W, Farinatti P (2005) Effects of resistance training intensity, volume, and session format on the postexercise hypotensive response. J Strength Cond Res 19(4):853–858. Google Scholar
  30. Takano RK (2013) Weightlifting in the development of the high school athlete. Strength Cond J 35(6):66–72. Google Scholar
  31. Tomschi F, Köster P, Predel H-G, Lay D, Bloch W, Grau M (2018) Acute effects of lower and upper body-resistance training on arterial stiffness, peripheral, and central blood pressure in young normotensive women. Sport Sci Health 14(2):357–363. Google Scholar
  32. Vlachopoulos C, Kardara D, Anastasakis A, Baou K, Terentes-Printzios D, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C (2010) Arterial stiffness and wave reflections in marathon runners. Am J Hypertens 23(9):974–979. Google Scholar
  33. Wassertheurer S, Kropf J, Weber T, van der Giet M, Baulmann J, Ammer M, Hametner B, Mayer CC, Eber B, Magometschnigg D (2010) A new oscillometric method for pulse wave analysis: comparison with a common tonometric method. J Hum Hypertens 24(8):498–504. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Weber T, Wassertheurer S, Rammer M, Maurer E, Hametner B, Mayer CC, Kropf J, Eber B (2011) Validation of a brachial cuff-based method for estimating central systolic blood pressure. Hypertension (Dallas Tex 1979) 58(5):825–832. Google Scholar
  35. Wickwire PJ, McLester JR, Green JM, Crews TR (2009) Acute heart rate, blood pressure, and RPE responses during super slow vs. traditional machine resistance training protocols using small muscle group exercises. J Strength Cond Res 23(1):72–79. Google Scholar
  36. Yoon ES, Jung SJ, Cheun SK, Oh YS, Kim SH, Jae SY (2010) Effects of acute resistance exercise on arterial stiffness in young men. Korean Circ J 40(1):16–22. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cardiology and Sports MedicineGerman Sport University CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Molecular and Cellular Sports MedicineGerman Sport University CologneCologneGermany
  3. 3.Department of Fitness and HealthIST University of Applied SciencesDüsseldorfGermany
  4. 4.The German Research Center of Elite Sport (Momentum)German Sport University CologneCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations