Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to passive arm or leg movement in men and women
- 54 Downloads
Women display an attenuated mechanoreflex during leg movement; however, sex differences in the response to arm movement are unknown.
Men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed passive arm or leg movement where either the right elbow or right knee was passively flexed/extended for 3 min at 30 times/min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output index (Qi), and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured and 1-min averages along with peak values were obtained. Heart rate variability was measured at baseline and throughout 3 min of passive movement.
Men had a greater average HR (P = 0.006) and Qi (P = 0.05) responses to passive limb movement compared to women. Men also had a greater (P = 0.02) and faster (P = 0.04) peak Qi response compared to women. During arm movement, men exhibited a greater change of average MAP compared to both women (P = 0.002) and leg movement (P = 0.05). Movement of either limb in both sexes decreased low-frequency power (LF; P = 0.04), decreased low-frequency to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF; P = 0.03), and increased high-frequency power (HF; P = 0.01) of heart rate variability. Women had lower pulse wave velocity (P = 0.02), higher root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD; P = 0.04), lower LF power (P = 0.04), higher HF power (P = 0.03), and higher cardiovagal baroreceptor sensitivity (P = 0.003) compared to men at all time points.
We have found sex- and limb-dependent responses where men exhibit higher blood pressure in response to passive arm movement compared to women and compared to leg movement.
KeywordsCardiac output Blood pressure Heart rate Heart rate variability Sex differences Mechanoreflex
Analysis of variance
Cardiovagal baroreceptor sensitivity
Continuous passive motion
Heart rate variability
Ratio of low frequency to high frequency
Mean arterial pressure
Pulse wave velocity
Cardiac output index
Root mean square of successive differences
Standard deviation of NN intervals
Funding provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and the Ontario Research Fund (ORF). The authors would like to thank Matthew Sem for his help with data analysis.
BF and HE contributed to the conception and design of the work. BF, HJ, and HE contributed to the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of the data and drafting of the work/revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
- Bailon R, Laouini G, Grao C, Orini M, Laguna P, Meste O (2011) The integral pulse frequency modulation model with time-varying threshold: application to heart rate variability analysis during exercise stress testing. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 58(3):642–652. https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2010.2095011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bertinieri G, Di Rienzo M, Cavallazzi A, Ferrari AU, Pedotti A, Mancia G (1988) Evaluation of baroreceptor reflex by blood pressure monitoring in unanesthetized cats. Am J Physiol 254(2 Pt 2):H377–H383Google Scholar
- Blaber AP, Yamamoto Y, Hughson RL (1995) Methodology of spontaneous baroreflex relationship assessed by surrogate data analysis. Am J Physiol 268(4 Pt 2):H1682–H1687Google Scholar
- Denis M, Moffet H, Caron F, Ouellet D, Paquet J, Nolet L (2006) Effectiveness of continuous passive motion and conventional physical therapy after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther 86(2):174–185Google Scholar
- Doherty CJ, Incognito AV, Notay K, Burns MJ, Slysz JT, Seed JD, Nardone M, Burr JF, Millar PJ (2018) Muscle sympathetic nerve responses to passive and active one-legged cycling: insights into the contributions of central command. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 314(1):H3–H10. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00494.2017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goldstein DS, Bentho O, Park MY, Sharabi Y (2011) Low-frequency power of heart rate variability is not a measure of cardiac sympathetic tone but may be a measure of modulation of cardiac autonomic outflows by baroreflexes. Exp Physiol 96(12):1255–1261. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2010.056259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jarvis SS, VanGundy TB, Galbreath MM, Shibata S, Okazaki K, Reelick MF, Levine BD, Fu Q (2011) Sex differences in the modulation of vasomotor sympathetic outflow during static handgrip exercise in healthy young humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(1):R193–R200. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00562.2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D, Pannier B, Vlachopoulos C, Wilkinson I, Struijker-Boudier H, European Network for Non-invasive Investigation of Large A (2006) Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur Heart J 27(21):2588–2605. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehl254 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malik M, Bigger J, Camm A, Kleiger E, Malliani A, Moss A, Schwartz P (1996) Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Eur Heart J 17(3):354–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- O’Driscoll SW, Giori NJ (2000) Continuous passive motion (CPM): theory and principles of clinical application. J Rehabil Res Dev 37(2):179–188Google Scholar
- Pomeranz B, Macaulay RJ, Caudill MA, Kutz I, Adam D, Gordon D, Kilborn KM, Barger AC, Shannon DC, Cohen RJ et al (1985) Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis. Am J Physiol 248(1 Pt 2):H151–H153Google Scholar
- Silva TM, Aranda LC, Paula-Ribeiro M, Oliveira DM, Medeiros WM, Vianna LC, Nery LE, Silva BM (2018) Hyperadditive ventilatory response arising from interaction between the carotid chemoreflex and the muscle mechanoreflex in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00009.2018 Google Scholar
- Ter Woerds W, De Groot PC, van Kuppevelt DH, Hopman MT (2006) Passive leg movements and passive cycling do not alter arterial leg blood flow in subjects with spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 86(5):636–645Google Scholar
- Venturelli M, Amann M, Layec G, McDaniel J, Trinity JD, Fjeldstad AS, Ives SJ, Yonnet G, Richardson RS (2014) Passive leg movement-induced hyperaemia with a spinal cord lesion: evidence of preserved vascular function. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 210(2):429–439. https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.12173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Venturelli M, Ce E, Limonta E, Bisconti AV, Devoto M, Rampichini S, Esposito F (2017a) Central and peripheral responses to static and dynamic stretch of skeletal muscle: mechano- and metaboreflex implications. J Appl Physiol (1985) 122(1):112–120. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00721.2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Venturelli M, Layec G, Trinity J, Hart CR, Broxterman RM, Richardson RS (2017b) Single passive leg movement-induced hyperemia: a simple vascular function assessment without a chronotropic response. J Appl Physiol (1985) 122(1):28–37. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00806.2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar