European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 1, pp 9–28 | Cite as

A review on crosstalk in myographic signals

  • Irsa TalibEmail author
  • Kenneth Sundaraj
  • Chee Kiang Lam
  • Jawad Hussain
  • Md. Asraf Ali
Invited Review



Crosstalk in myographic signals is a major hindrance to the understanding of local information related to individual muscle function. This review aims to analyse the problem of crosstalk in electromyography and mechanomyography.


An initial search of the SCOPUS database using an appropriate set of keywords yielded 290 studies, and 59 potential studies were selected after all the records were screened using the eligibility criteria. This review on crosstalk revealed that signal contamination due to crosstalk remains a major challenge in the application of surface myography techniques. Various methods have been employed in previous studies to identify, quantify and reduce crosstalk in surface myographic signals.


Although correlation-based methods for crosstalk quantification are easy to use, there is a possibility that co-contraction could be interpreted as crosstalk. High-definition EMG has emerged as a new technique that has been successfully applied to reduce crosstalk.


The phenomenon of crosstalk needs to be investigated carefully because it depends on many factors related to muscle task and physiology. This review article not only provides a good summary of the literature on crosstalk in myographic signals but also discusses new directions related to techniques for crosstalk identification, quantification and reduction. The review also provides insights into muscle-related issues that impact crosstalk in myographic signals.


Crosstalk Electromyography Mechanomyography Signal contamination 



Abductor digiti minimi


Abductor pollicis brevis


Average rectified value


Biceps brachii


Branched electrode


Blind source separation








Cross-correlation co-efficient


Corrugator supercilii


Double differential


Extensor carpi ulnaris


Extensor carpi radialis


Extensor digitorum


Extensor digitorum communis


Extensor digiti minimi


Extensor indicis




Erector spinae


Flexor carpi radialis


Flexor carpi ulnaris


Flexor digitorum superficialis


Flexor digitorum profundus


Field electrode stimulation


Gastrocnemius lateralis


Gastrocnemius medialis


Independent component analysis


Inter electrode distance


Integrated EMG




Latissimus dorsi


Median frequency




Motor unit action potential


Orbicularis oculi


Peroneus longus


Peak to peak


Pronator teres


Rectus abdominis internal oblique


Rectus femoris


Root mean square


Surface EMG






Tibialis anterior


Triceps surae


Triceps brachii


Transcranial magnetic stimulation


Transversus abdominis internal oblique


Vastus intermedialis


Vastus lateralis


Vastus medialis


Wired EMG


Zygomaticus major



The authors would like to thank Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for providing a conducive platform to conduct the research. Funding was provided by e-Science Fund research grant, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MoSTI), Malaysia.

Author contributions

Conceived and designed the search experiment: IT, KS and MAA. Performed the search experiment: IT, KS and LCK. Contents arrangement: IT, KS and JH Wrote the paper: IT and KS.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this article declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechatronic EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)ArauMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Telecommunication Research and Innovation (CeTRI), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektronik & Kejuruteraan Komputer (FKEKK)Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM)Durian TunggalMalaysia
  3. 3.Daffodil International UniversityDhakaBangladesh

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