Advertisement

The influence of local skin temperature on the sweat glands maximum ion reabsorption rate

  • N. Gerrett
  • T. Amano
  • G. Havenith
  • Y. Inoue
  • Narihiko KondoEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Changes in mean skin temperature (Tsk) have been shown to modify the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption. This study aims to extend this knowledge by investigating if modifications could also be caused by local Tsk.

Methods

The influence of local Tsk on the sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates was investigated in ten healthy volunteers (three female and seven male; 20.8 ± 1.2 years, 60.4 ± 7.7 kg, 169.4 ± 10.4 cm) during passive heating (water-perfused suit and lower leg water immersion). In two separate trials, in a randomized order, one forearm was always manipulated to 33 °C (Neutral), whilst the other was manipulated to either 30 °C (Cool) or 36 °C (Warm) using water-perfused patches. Oesophageal temperature (Tes), forearm Tsk, sweat rate (SR), galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and salivary aldosterone concentrations were measured. The sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates were identified using the ∆SR threshold for an increasing ∆GSC.

Results

Thermal [Tes and body temperature (Tb)] and non-thermal responses (aldosterone) were similar across all conditions (p > 0.05). A temperature-dependent response for the sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates was evident between 30 °C (0.18 ± 0.10 mg/cm2/min) and 36 °C (0.28 ± 0.14 mg/cm2/min, d = 0.88, p < 0.05), but not for 33 °C (0.22 ± 0.12 mg/cm2/min), d = 0.44 and d = 0.36, p > 0.05.

Conclusion

The data indicate that small variations in local Tsk may not affect the sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates but when the local Tsk increases by > 6 °C, ion reabsorption rates also increase.

Keywords

Sweat ion regulation Sweat glands Skin temperature Aldosterone 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

CFTR

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane channels

Cl

Chloride

CVC

Cutaneous vascular conductance (%)

ENaC

Epithelial sodium channel

GSC

Galvanic skin conductance (µS)

HASG

Heat-activated sweat glands

HR

Heart rate (bpm)

K+

Potassium

MAP

Mean arterial pressure (mmHG)

Na+

Sodium

SGO

Sweat gland output

SR

Sweat rate (mg/cm2/min)

Tb

Body temperature (°C)

Tes

Oesophageal temperature (°C)

Tsk

Skin temperature (°C)

O2max

Maximum oxygen uptake (ml/kg/min)

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank our participants for volunteering their time. We also thank Drs S. Koga and D. Okushima for their insightful comments during the preparation of this manuscript. Finally, we thank Dr Koji Sato for his assistance with aldosterone analysis. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (16H04851 and 17H0253) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

Author contributions

Nicola Gerrett, Tatsuro Amano and Narihiko Kondo conceived and designed the research. Nicola Gerrett conducted all experiments and analysed the data. All authors were involved in the interpretation of the data. Nicola Gerrett drafted the manuscript and all authors read, edited and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

References

  1. Amano T, Gerrett N, Inoue Y et al (2016) Determination of the maximum rate of eccrine sweat glands’ ion reabsorption using the galvanic skin conductance to local sweat rate relationship. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amano T, Hirose M, Konishi K et al (2017) Maximum rate of sweat ions reabsorption during exercise with regional differences, sex, and exercise training. Eur J Appl Physiol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3619-8 Google Scholar
  3. Bovell D (2015) The human eccrine sweat gland: structure, function and disorders. J Local Glob Heal Sci 2015:5.  https://doi.org/10.5339/jlghs.2015.5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bulmer MG, Forwell GD (1956) The concentration of sodium in thermal sweat. J Physiol 32:5–122Google Scholar
  5. Buono MJ, Jechort A, Marques R et al (2007) Comparison of infrared versus contact thermometry for measuring skin temperature during exercise in the heat. Physiol Meas 28:855–859.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/28/8/008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buono MJ, Claros R, Deboer T, Wong J (2008) Na+ secretion rate increases proportionally more than the Na+ reabsorption rate with increases in sweat rate. J Appl Physiol 105:1044–1048.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.90503.2008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buono MJ, Tabor B, White A (2011) Localized β-adrenergic receptor blockade does not affect sweating during exercise. Am J Physiol Integr Comp Physiol 300:R1148–R1151.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00228.2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chraïbi A, Horisberger J-D (2003) Dual effect of temperature on the human epithelial Na+ channel. Pflug Arch Eur J Physiol 447:316–320.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-003-1178-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen J (1977) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  10. Convertino V, Keil LC, Greenleaf JE (1983) Plasma volume, renin, and vasopressin responses to graded exercise after training. J Appl Physiol 54:508–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Darrow CW (1964) The rationale for treating the change in galvanic skin response as a change in conductance. Psychophysiology 1:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freund BJ, Shizuru EM, Hashiro GM et al (1991) Hormonal, electrolyte, and renal responses to exercise are intensity dependent. J Appl Physiol 70:900–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gagge AP, Nishi Y (2011) Heat exchange between human skin surface and thermal environment. In: Comprehensive physiology. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 69–92Google Scholar
  14. Gao W, Brooks GA, Klonoff DC (2018) Wearable physiological systems and technologies for metabolic monitoring. J Appl Physiol 1:548–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerrett N, Amano T, Inoue Y et al (2018a) The effects of exercise and passive heating on the sweat glands ion reabsorption rates. Physiol Rep.  https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13619 Google Scholar
  16. Gerrett NM, Griggs KE, Redortier B et al (2018b) Sweat-from gland to skin surface—production, transport and skin absorption. J Appl Physiol.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00872.2017 Google Scholar
  17. Harvey BJ, Higgins M (2000) Nongenomic effects of aldosterone on Ca2+ in M-1 cortical collecting duct cells. Kidney Int 57:1395–1403.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00981.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hegarty J, Harvey BJ (1998) Aldosterone increases intracellular calcium in cultured human sweat gland epithelial cells by a non-genomic mechanism of action. J Physiol 511:36PGoogle Scholar
  19. Hew-Butler T, Noakes TD, Soldin SJ, Verbalis JG (2010) Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist? Br J Sports Med 44:1710–1715.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.051771 Google Scholar
  20. Hew-Butler T, Hummel J, Rider BC, Verbalis JG (2014) Characterization of the effects of the vasopressin V2 receptor on sweating, fluid balance, and performance during exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 307:R366–R375.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00120.2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Inoue Y (1996) Longitudinal effects of age on heat-activated sweat gland density and output in healthy active older men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 74:72–77.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00376497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Inoue Y, Nakao M, Ishizashi H et al (1998) Regional differences in the Na+ reabsorption of sweat glands. Appl Hum Sci 17:219–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson RE, Pitts GC, Consolazio FC (1944) Factors influencing chloride concentration in human sweat. Am J Physiol 141:575–589.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplegacy.1944.141.4.575 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kenefick RW, Cheuvront SN, Elliott LD et al (2012) Biological and analytical variation of the human sweating response: implications for study design and analysis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302:252–258.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00456.2011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kirby CR, Convertino VA (1986) Plasma aldosterone and sweat sodium concentrations after exercise and heat acclimation. J Appl Physiol 61:967–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Machado-Moreira CA, Edkins E, Iabushita AS et al (2009) Sweat gland recruitment following thermal and psychological stimuli. In: Castellini JW (ed) 13th international conference of environmental ergonomics, Boston, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Mekjavic IB, Rempel ME (1990) Determination of esophageal probe insertion length based on standing and sitting height. J Appl Physiol 69:376–379.  https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1990.69.1.376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nadel ER, Bullard RW, Stolwijk JA (1971) Importance of skin temperature in the regulation of sweating. J Appl Physiol 31:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Reddy M, Quinton P (2003) Functional interaction of CFTR and ENaC in sweat glands. Pflüg Arch Eur J Physiol 445:499–503.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-002-0959-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson S, Gerking SD, Tuerell ES, Kincaid RK (1985) Effects of skin temperature of salt concentration of sweat. J Appl Physiol 2:654–662Google Scholar
  31. Ruff RL (1999) Effects of temperature on slow and fast inactivation of rat skeletal muscle Na(+) channels. Am J Physiol 277:C937–C947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sato K (1977) The physiology, pharmacology, and biochemistry of the eccrine sweat gland. Springer, Berlin, pp 51–131Google Scholar
  33. Shamsuddin AKM, Kuwahara T, Oue A et al (2005a) Effect of skin temperature on the ion reabsorption capacity of sweat glands during exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:442–447.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1354-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shamsuddin AKM, Yanagimoto S, Kuwahara T et al (2005b) Changes in the index of sweat ion concentration with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:292–297.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1314-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith CJ, Havenith G (2012) Body mapping of sweating patterns in athletes: a sex comparison. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:2350–2361.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318267b0c4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stolwijk JA, Hardy JD (1966) Partitional calorimetric studies of responses of man to thermal transients. J Appl Physiol 21:967–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Thomas PE, Korr IM (1957) Relationship between sweat gland activity and electrical resistance of the skin. J Appl Physiol 10:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yoshida T, Shin-ya H, Nakai S et al (2006) Genomic and non-genomic effects of aldosterone on the individual variation of the sweat Na+ concentration during exercise in trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 98:466–471.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0295-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Applied Human Physiology, Graduate School of Human Development and EnvironmentKobe UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory for Exercise and Environmental Physiology, Faculty of EducationNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan
  3. 3.Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre, Loughborough Design SchoolLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK
  4. 4.Laboratory for Human Performance ResearchOsaka International UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations