Definition, symptoms and risk of techno-stress: a systematic review

  • Giuseppe La TorreEmail author
  • Alessia Esposito
  • Iliana Sciarra
  • Marta Chiappetta



Techno-stress (TS) is an emergent phenomenon closely related to the pervasive use of information and communication technologies in modern society. Despite numerous studies existing in the literature, only few comprehensive reviews have been performed, which has led to fragmented information about TS. This systematic review aimed to clarify the definition, the symptoms, and the risk factors of TS, focusing on the differences between work-related and non-work-related sources of TS.


A comprehensive literature review of three electronic databases was performed according to the PRISMA statement. ‘Technostress’ was used as the only keyword.


In the qualitative synthesis, 105 studies were included: 84 cross-sectional studies, 8 experimental studies and 13 reviews (11 narrative and 2 systematic reviews). 70 studies (67%) addressed work-related TS, 26 (25%) addressed non-work-related TS, while 8 (8%) did not differentiate between work and non-work fields. The presence and level of TS among individuals was described in 38 studies (29%), whilst the techno-stressors, and the consequences of TS, were described in 53 studies (51%). The antecedents of TS were reported in 47 studies (45%), its moderators in 40 studies (38%), whilst its symptoms in only 11 studies (10%).


TS affects both professional and private life. It can determine a reduction in job and life satisfaction and in productivity, and is often associated to the occurrence of psychological and behavioral disorders. Efforts should be made to recognize situations with a high risk of causing TS, to prevent its progressive development in a prospective way using mainly cohort studies.


Techno-stress Information and communication technology PRISMA statement Systematic review Techno-stressors 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Abdul-Gader AH, Kozar KA (1995) The impact of computer alienation on information technology investment decisions: an exploratory cross-national analysis. MIS Q 19(4):535–559Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad UNU, Amin SM (2012) The dimensions of technostress among academic librarians. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 65:266–271Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad UNU, Aminb SM, Ismailb WKW (2012) The relationship between technostress creators and organizational commitment among academic librarians. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 40:182–186Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad UNU, Aminb SM, Ismailb WKW (2014) Moderating effect of technostress inhibitors on the relationship between technostress creators and organisational commitment. Sains Humanika 67(1):51–62Google Scholar
  5. Al-Fudail M, Mellar H (2008) Investigating teacher stress when using technology. Comput Educ 51:1103–1110Google Scholar
  6. Al-Qallaf CL (2006) Librarians and technology in academic and research libraries in Kuwait: perceptions and effects. Libri 56(3):168–179Google Scholar
  7. Arnetz BB, Wiholm C (1997) Technological stress: psychophysiological symptoms in modern offices. J Psychosom Res 43(1):35–42Google Scholar
  8. Ayyagari R (2007) What and why of technostress: technology antecedents and implications. Dissertation, Clemson UniversityGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayyagary R. Grover V, Purvis R (2011) Technostress: technological antecedents and implications. MIS Q 35(4):831–858Google Scholar
  10. Ballance CT, Rogers SU (1991) Psychology of computer use: XXIV. Computer related stress among technical college students. Psychol Rep 69:539–542Google Scholar
  11. Bichteler J (1986) Human aspects of high-tech in special libraries. Spec Libr 77(3):121–128Google Scholar
  12. Bichteler J. Technostress in libraries: causes, effects and solutions. Electron Libr 1987; (5):282–287Google Scholar
  13. Brod C (1982) Managing technostress: optimizing the use of computer technology. Pers J 61(10):753–757Google Scholar
  14. Brod C (1984) Technostress: the human cost of the computer revolution. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooks S (2015) Does personal social media usage affect efficiency and well-being? Comput Hum Behav 46:26–37Google Scholar
  16. Brooks S, Califf C (2016) Social media-induced technostress: its impact on the job performance of it professionals and the moderating role of job characteristics. Comput Netw 114:143–153Google Scholar
  17. Brooks S, Schneider C, Wang X (2016) Technology addictions and technostress: an examination of Hong Kong and the US. In: Twenty-second Americas conference on information systems, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  18. Brown R, Duck J, Jimmieson N (2014) E-mail in the workplace: the role of stress appraisals and normative response pressure in the relationship between e-mail stressors and employee strain. International Journal of Stress Management 21:325–347Google Scholar
  19. Bucher E, Fieseler C, Suphan A (2013) The stress potential of social media in the workplace. Inform Commun Soc 16(10):1639–1667Google Scholar
  20. Burke MS (2009) The incidence of technological stress among baccalaureate nurse educators using technology during course preparation and delivery. Nurse Educ Today 29:57–64Google Scholar
  21. Califf CB, Todd C (2016) Rethinking technostress: a transactional approach through affordances. In: Twenty-second Americas conference on information systems, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  22. Califf CB, Sarker S, Sarker S et al (2015) The bright and dark side of technostress: an empirical study of healthcare workers. In: Thirty sixth international conference on information systems, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  23. Champion S (1988) Technostress: technology’s toll. Sch Libr J 35(3):48–51Google Scholar
  24. Chiappetta M (2017) The technostress: definition, symptoms and risk prevention. Senses Sci 4(1):358–361Google Scholar
  25. Choi SB, Lim MS (2016) Effects of social and technology overload on psychological well-being in young South Korean adults: the mediatory role of social network service addiction. Comput Hum Behav 61:245–254Google Scholar
  26. Çoklar AN, Sahin YL (2011) Technostress levels of social network users based on ICTs in Turkey. Eur J Soc Sci 23(2):171–182Google Scholar
  27. D’Arcy J, Gupta A Tarafdar M et al (2014) Reflecting on the “dark side” of information technology use. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 35(5):109–118Google Scholar
  28. Des Jarlais DC, Lyles C, Crepaz N, TREND Group (2004) Improving the reporting quality of nonrandomized evaluations of behavioral and public health interventions: the trend statement. Am J Public Health (94):361–366Google Scholar
  29. Di Frenna E, Tecnostress (2015) Le 10 cose da sapere per affrontare il rischio nel lavoro digitale e imparare a valutarlo. Accessed 30 Aug 2018
  30. Ennis LA (2005) The evolution of technostress. Comput Libr 25:10–12Google Scholar
  31. Fieseler C, Grubenmann S, Meckel M et al (2014) The leadership dimension of coping with technostress. In: 47th Hawaii international conference on system science, pp 530–539Google Scholar
  32. Fischer T, Riedl R (2015) The status quo of neurophysiology in organizational technostress research: a review of studies published from 1978 to 2015. In: Davis F, Riedl R, vom Brocke J, Léger PM, Randolph A (eds) Information systems and neuroscience. Lecture notes in information systems and organisation lecture notes in information systems and organisation, vol 10. Springer, Austria, pp 9–17Google Scholar
  33. Fischer T, Riedl R (2017) Technostress research: a nurturing ground for measurement pluralism? Commun Assoc Inf Syst 40(17):375–401Google Scholar
  34. Fuglseth AM, Sørebø Ø (2014) The effects of technostress within the context of employee use of ICT. Comput Hum Behav 40:161–170Google Scholar
  35. Galluch PS, Grover V, Thatcher JB (2015) Interrupting the workplace: examining stressors in an information technology context. J Assoc Inf Syst 16(1):1–47Google Scholar
  36. Garbarino S, Costa G (2014) Transport and communications. In: Garbarino S, Nobili L, Costa G (eds) Sleepiness and human impact assessment. Springer, Milan, pp 152–157Google Scholar
  37. Gaudioso F, Turel O, Galimberti C (2017) The mediating roles of strain facets and coping strategies in translating techno-stressors into adverse job outcomes. Comput Hum Behav 69:189–196Google Scholar
  38. Haddara M, Hetlevikb T (2016) Investigating the effectiveness of traditional support structures & self-organizing entities 9 within the ERP shakedown phase. Procedia Comput Sci 100:507–51682012Google Scholar
  39. Harris KJ, Ranida B, Harris RB et al (2015) Relationship between technology-overload and work family conflict. Comput Hum Behav 50:411–417Google Scholar
  40. Herzog R, Àlvarez-Pasquin MJ, Dìaz C et al (2013) Are healthcare workers’ intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? A systematic review. BMC Public Health 19(13):154Google Scholar
  41. Hirose H, Yamamoto Y, Ichikawa H (2012) The relation between education effect and individual characteristics of WBT teaching materials. Multimedia Technol 1(1):7–13Google Scholar
  42. Hsiao KL, Lee CH, Chiang HS, Wang JY (2016) Exploring the antecedents of technostress and compulsive mobile application usage: personality perspectives. In: Zhou J, Salvendy G (eds) Human aspects of IT for the aged population. Design for aging. ITAP 2016. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 9754. Springer, Cham, pp 320–328Google Scholar
  43. Hsiao KL, Shu Y, Huang TC (2017) Exploring the effect of compulsive social app usage on technostress and academic performance: perspectives from personality traits. Telemat Inform 34:679–690Google Scholar
  44. Hudiburg RA (1989) Psychology of computer use: VII. Measuring technostress: computer-related stress. Psychol Rep 64(3;2):767–772Google Scholar
  45. Hudiburg RA, Necessary JR (1996) Coping with computer-stress. J Educ Comput Res 15(2):113–124Google Scholar
  46. Hudiburg RA, Pashaj I, Wolfe R (1999) A preliminary investigation of computer stress and the big five personality factors. Psychol Rep 85(2):473–480Google Scholar
  47. Hung WH, Chang LM, Lin CH (2011) Managing the risk of overusing mobile phones in the working environment: a study of ubiquitous technostress. In: 15th PACISGoogle Scholar
  48. Hung WH, Chen K, Lin CP (2015) Does the proactive personality mitigate the adverse effect of technostress on productivity in the mobile environment? Telemat Inform 32:143–157Google Scholar
  49. Imran M, Ramayah T, Kurnia S (2017) To use or not to use: modelling end user grumbling as user resistance in pre-implementation stage of enterprise resource planning system. Inf Syst 69:164–179Google Scholar
  50. Italian Parliament (2007) D.Lgs 9 aprile 2008, n. 81. Attuazione dell’articolo 1 della legge 3 agosto 2007, n. 123, in materia di tutela della salute e della sicurezza nei luoghi di lavoro. Accessed 30 Aug 2018
  51. Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D et al (1996) Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is binding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996(17):1–12Google Scholar
  52. Jena RK (2015a) Technostress in ICT enabled collaborative learning environment: an empirical study among Indian academician. Comput Hum Behav 51:1116–1123Google Scholar
  53. Jena RK (2015b) Compulsive use of smartphone and technostress: a study among Indian students. Int J Appl Bus Econ Res 13(1):353–362Google Scholar
  54. Jonušauskas S, Raisiene AG (2016) Exploring technostress: results of a large sample factor analysis. J Inf Organ Sci 40(1):67–82Google Scholar
  55. Joo YJ, Lim KY, Kim NH (2016) The effects of secondary teachers’ technostress on the intention to use technology in South Korea. Comput Educ 95:114–122Google Scholar
  56. Kasuga N, Itoh K, Oishi S et al (2004) Study on relationship between technostress and antisocial behavior on computers. IEICE Trans Inf Syst E87-D(6):1461–1465Google Scholar
  57. Khan A, Rehman H, Rehman SU (2013) An empirical analysis of correlation between technostress and job satisfaction: a case of KPK, Pakistan. Pak J Libr Inf Sci 14:9–15Google Scholar
  58. Khuntia J, Tanniru M, Weiner J (2015) Juggling digitization and technostress: the case of alert fatigues in the patient care system implementation. Health Policy Technol 4:364–377Google Scholar
  59. Kim HJ, Choong C, Lee CC et al (2015) An examination of work exhaustion in the mobile enterprise environment. Technol Forecast Soc Change 100:255–266Google Scholar
  60. Koo C, Wati Y (2011) What factors do really influence the level of technostress in organizations? (An empirical study). Information 14:3647–3654Google Scholar
  61. Krishnan S (2017) Personality and espoused cultural differences in technostress creators. Comput Hum Behav 66:154–167Google Scholar
  62. Kwanya T, Stilwell C, Underwood PG (2012) Technostress and technolust: coping mechanisms among academic librarians in Eastern and Southern Africa. In: Proceedings of the international conference of ICT management, pp 302–313Google Scholar
  63. La Torre G, Backhaus I, Mannocci A (2015) Rating for narrative reviews: concept and development of the International Narrative Systematic Assessment tool. Senses Sci 2(1):31–35Google Scholar
  64. Lee J (2016) Does stress from cell phone use increase negative emotions at work? Soc Behav Personal 44(5):705–716Google Scholar
  65. Lee SJ, Jin SH, Choi BJ (2012) The influence of technostress and antismart on continuous use of smartphones. In: Proceedings of the world congress on engineering and computer science, vol I, pp 24–26Google Scholar
  66. Lee YK, Chang CT, Lin Y et al (2014) The dark side of smartphone usage: psychological traits, compulsive behavior and technostress. Comput Hum Behav 31:373–383Google Scholar
  67. Lee SB, Lee SC, Suh YH (2016a) Technostress from mobile communication and its impact on quality of life and productivity. Total Qual Manag Bus Excell 27(7–8):775–790Google Scholar
  68. Lee YK, Chang CT, Cheng ZH et al (2016b) Helpful-stressful cycle? Psychological links between type of mobile phone user and stress. Behav Inf Technol 35(1):75–86Google Scholar
  69. Lee AR, Son SM, Kim KK (2016c) Information and communication technology overload and social networking service fatigue: a stress perspective. Comput Hum Behav 55:51–61Google Scholar
  70. Leung L, Zhang R (2017) Mapping ICT use at home and telecommuting practices: a perspective from work/family border theory. Telemat Inform 34(1):385–396Google Scholar
  71. Luqman A, Cao X, Ali A (2017) Empirical investigation of Facebook discontinues usage intentions based on SOR paradigm. Comput Hum Behav 70:544–555Google Scholar
  72. Lyon WS (1985) Analytically speaking. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 94(5):287–290Google Scholar
  73. Maier C, Laumer S, Eckhardt A et al (2012) Conceptualization, operationalization, and empirical evidence for an individual’s dispositional resistance to IT—induced changes. In: AIS electronic library, AMCIS proceedings, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  74. Maier C, Laumer S, Eckhardt A et al (2015a) Giving too much social support: social overload on social networking sites. Eur J Inf Syst 24(5):447–464Google Scholar
  75. Maier C, Laumer S, Weinert C et al (2015b) The effects of technostress and switching stress on discontinued use of social networking services: a study of Facebook use. Inf Syst J 25:275–308Google Scholar
  76. Marcoulides GA (1989) Measuring computer anxiety: the computer anxiety scale. Educ Psychol Meas 49(3):733–739Google Scholar
  77. Mark GJ, Voida S, Cardello AV (2011) A pace not dictated by electrons: an empirical study of work without email. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 555–564Google Scholar
  78. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group (2010) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Int J Surg 8(5):336–341Google Scholar
  79. Nimrod G (2017) Technostress: measuring a new threat to well-being in later life. Aging Ment Health 31:1–8Google Scholar
  80. Ninaus K, Diehl S, Terlutter R et al (2015) Benefits and stressors perceived effects of ICT use on employee health and work stress: an exploratory study from Austria and Hong Kong. Int J Qual Stud Health Well Being 10:1Google Scholar
  81. Ortbach K, Köffer S, Müller CPF, Niehaves B (2013) How IT consumerization affects the stress level at work: a public sector case study. In: PACIS 2013 proceedings, p 231Google Scholar
  82. Park HJ (2016) The influence of information security technostress on the job satisfaction of employees. J Bus Retail Manag Res 11(1):66–75Google Scholar
  83. Perciavalle M, Prunesti A (2016) Offline è bello. Franco Angeli, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  84. Poole CE, Denny E (2001) Technological change in the workplace: a statewide survey of community college library and learning resources personnel. Coll Res Libr 62(6):503–515Google Scholar
  85. Ragu-Nathan TS, Tarafdar M, Ragu-Nathan BS (2008) The consequences of technostress for end users in organizations: conceptual development and empirical validation. Inf Syst Res 19(4):417–433Google Scholar
  86. Raisiene AG, Jonusauskas S (2015) Effect of networked workplace on employees’ work-life balance. Difference between population of managers and staff. In: Drivers for progress in the global society: 3rd European interdisciplinary forumGoogle Scholar
  87. Ravindran T, Chua AYK, Goh DH (2014) Antecedents and effects of social network fatigue. J Assoc Inf Sci Technol 65(11):2306–2320Google Scholar
  88. Reinecke L, Aufenanger S, Beute, lME et al (2017) Digital stress over the life span: the effects of communication load and internet multitasking on perceived stress and psychological health impairments in a german probability sample. Media Psychol 20(1):90–115Google Scholar
  89. Reinke K, Tarafdar M, Gerlach G et al (2016) ICT-based communication events as triggers of stress: a mixed methods study. In: Thirty seventh international conference on information systems, 2016, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  90. Riedl R (2013) On the biology of technostress: literature review and research agenda. DATABASE Adv Inf Syst 44(1):18–55Google Scholar
  91. Riedl R, Kindermann H, Auinger A et al (2012) Technostress from a neurobiological perspective: system breakdown increases the stress hormone cortisol in computer users. Bus Inf Syst Eng 2:61–69Google Scholar
  92. Riedl R, Kindermann H, Auinger A et al (2013) Computer breakdown as a stress factor during task completion under time pressure: identifying gender differences based on skin conductance. Adv Hum Comput Interaction 2013:1–8Google Scholar
  93. Romero LM, Platts SH, Schoech SJ et al (2015) Understanding stress in the healthy animal—potential paths for progress. Stress 18(5):491–497Google Scholar
  94. Rose PM, Stoklosa K, Gray SA (1998) A focus group approach to assessing technostress at the reference desk. Ref User Serv Q 37(4):311–317Google Scholar
  95. Saganuwan MU (2015) Conceptual framework: AIS technostress and its effect on professionals’ job outcomes. Asian Soc Sci 11(5)Google Scholar
  96. Sahin YL, Çoklar AN (2009) Social networking users’ views on technology and the determination of technostress levels. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 1:1437–1442Google Scholar
  97. Salanova M, Llorens S, Cifre E (2013) The dark side of technologies: technostress among users of information and communication technologies. Int J Psychol 48(3):422–436Google Scholar
  98. Sami LK, Pangannaiah NB (2006) A literature survey on the effect of information technology on library users. Libr Rev 55(7):429–439Google Scholar
  99. Schellhammer S, Haines R (2013) Towards contextualizing stressors in technostress research. In: 34th International conference on information systems, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  100. Sellberg C, Susi T (2014) Technostress in the office: a distributed cognition perspective on human-technology interaction. Cogn Technol Work 16:187–201Google Scholar
  101. Shea BJ, Grimshaw JM, Wells GA et al (2007) Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 7:7–10Google Scholar
  102. Shu Q, Tu Q, Wang K (2011) The impact of computer self-efficacy and technology dependence on computer-related technostress: a social cognitive theory perspective. Int J Hum Comput Interact 27(10):923–939Google Scholar
  103. Srivastava SC, Chandra S, Shirish A (2015) Technostress creators and job outcomes: theorising the moderating influence of personality traits. Inf Syst J 25:355–401Google Scholar
  104. Stich JF, Tarafdar M, Copper CL et al (2017) Workplace stress from actual and desired computer-mediated communication use: a multi-method study. New Technol Work Employ 32:84–100Google Scholar
  105. Suh A, Lee J (2017) Understanding teleworkers’ technostress and its influence on job satisfaction. Internet Res 27(1):140–159Google Scholar
  106. Tacy JW (2016) Technostress: a concept analysis. Online J Nurs Inform 20(2)Google Scholar
  107. Tacy JW, Northam S, Wieck L (2016) Understanding the effects of technology acceptance in nursing faculty: a hierarchical regression. Online J Nurs Inform 20(2)Google Scholar
  108. Tak S. Park S (2016) A study of the connected smart worker’s techno-stress. Procedia Comput Sci 91:725–733Google Scholar
  109. Tams S (2015) Challenges in technostress research: guiding future work. In: Twenty-first Americas conference on information systems, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  110. Tams S, Hill K, de Guinea AO et al (2014) NeuroIS alternative or complement to existing methods? Illustrating the holistic effects of neuroscience and self-reported data in the context of technostress research. J Assoc Inf Syst 15:723–753Google Scholar
  111. Tarafdar M, Tu Q, Ragu-Nathan BS et al (2007) The impact of technostress on role stress and productivity. J Manag Inf Syst 24(1):301–328Google Scholar
  112. Tarafdar M, Tu Q, Ragu-Nathan T (2011) Impact of technostress on end-user satisfaction and performance. J Manag Inf Syst 27(3):303–334Google Scholar
  113. Tarafdar M, Pullins EB, Ragu-Nathan TS (2015a) Technostress: negative effect on performance and possible mitigations. Inf Syst J 25:103–132Google Scholar
  114. Tarafdar M, D’Arcy J, Turel O et al (2015b) The dark side of information technology. MIT Sloan Manag Rev 56(2):61–70Google Scholar
  115. Tarafdar M, Gupta A, Turel O (2015c) Special issue on “Dark side of information technology use”: an introduction and a framework for research. Inf Syst J 25:315–317 (forthcoming) Google Scholar
  116. Tu Q, Wang K, Shu Q (2005) Computer-related technostress in China, Commun ACM 48(4):77–81Google Scholar
  117. Waizenegger L, Remus U, Maier R (2016) The social media trap—how knowledge workers learn to deal with constant social connectivity. In: 49th Hawaii international conference on system sciences, pp 2115–2124Google Scholar
  118. Wang K, Shu Q (2006) The moderating impact of perceived organizational support on the relationship between technostress and role stress. In: 19th International workshop on database and expert systems applications, pp 420–424Google Scholar
  119. Wang K, Shu Q, Tu Q (2005) Empirical study of coping strategies for computer-related technostress of Chinese employees. Tsinghua Sci Technol 10(S1):753–760Google Scholar
  120. Wang K, Shu Q, Tu Q (2008) Technostress under different organizational environments: an empirical investigation. Comput Hum Behav 24:3002–3013Google Scholar
  121. Weil MM, Rosen LD (1997) Technostress: coping with technology @work @home @play. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Weinert C, Maier C, Laumer S et al (2014) Does teleworking negatively influence IT professionals? An empirical analysis of IT personnel’s telework-enabled stress. In: Proceedings of the 52nd ACM conference on computers and people research, pp 139–147Google Scholar
  123. Wulansari NA, Ranihusna D, Witiastuti RS (2015) Reduction effect of technostress with role of perceived organizational support. IJABER 13(7):5159–5171Google Scholar
  124. Yan Z, Guo X, Lee MKO et al (2013) A conceptual model of technology features and technostress in telemedicine communication. Inf Technol People 26(3):283–297Google Scholar
  125. Yao J, Cao X (2017) The balancing mechanism of social networking over use and rational usage. Comput Hum Behav 75:415–422Google Scholar
  126. Young KS (2017) The evolution of Internet addiction. Addict Behav 64:229–230Google Scholar
  127. Yu JC, Kuo LH, Chen LM et al (2009) Assessing and managing mobile technostress. WSEAS Trans Commun 8(4):416–425Google Scholar
  128. Yun H, Kettinger WJ, Choong C et al (2012) A new open door: the smartphone’s impact on work to life conflict, stress, and resistance. Int J Electron Commer 16(4):121–152Google Scholar
  129. Zhang S, Zhao L, Lu Y et al (2016) Do you get tired of socializing? An empirical explanation of discontinuous usage behaviour in social network. Inf Manag 53:904–914Google Scholar
  130. Zheng X, Lee MKO (2016) Excessive use of mobile social networking sites: negative consequences on individuals. Comput Hum Behav 65:65–76Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe La Torre
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alessia Esposito
    • 1
  • Iliana Sciarra
    • 1
  • Marta Chiappetta
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie InfettiveSapienza Università di RomaRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations