Fluorescence microscope light source stability
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The process of fluorescence starts with the efficient generation of light that is required for the excitation of fluorophores. As such, light sources are a crucial component of a fluorescence microscope. Choosing the right illumination tool can not only improve the quality of experimental results, but also the microscope’s economic and environmental footprint. While arc lamps have historically proven to be a reliable light source for widefield fluorescence microscopy, solid-state light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have become the light source of choice for new fluorescence microscopy systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that LEDs have superior light stability on all timescales tested and use less electrical power than traditional light sources when used at lower power outputs. They can be readily switched on and off electronically, have a longer lifetime and they do not contain mercury, and thus are better for the environment. We demonstrate that it is important to measure light source power output during warm-up and switching, as a light source’s responsiveness (in terms of power) can be quite variable. Several general protocols for testing light source stability are presented. A detailed life cycle analysis shows that an LED light source can have a fourfold lower environmental impact when compared to a metal halide source.
KeywordsStability Light source Solid state Fluorescence Microscopy LED
All experiments were conducted at the McGill University Advanced BioImaging Facility (ABIF).
Funding for this project came from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Councils (NSERC) Grant 386084, the McGill Sustainability Fund project SP0149 and the Advanced BioImaging Facility (ABIF).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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