Alarin in different human intestinal epithelial cell types

  • Samir Jabari
  • Falk Schrödl
  • Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger
  • Barbara Kofler
  • Axel Brehmer
Short Communication


Alarin (AL), a new member of the galanin family, has been localized in various CNS regions, mainly in rodents. Among other effects, it modulates food intake. Therefore, we analyzed the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of AL in human intestinal epithelia. Cryosections of 12 human bowel samples were immunohistochemically double-stained for AL and α-defensin 5 (αD; first set). Two further sets of sections were quadruple-stained either (second set) for AL, chromogranin (CG), synaptophysin (SY), and somatostatin (SO) or (third set) for AL, CG, Peptide Y (PY), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Slides were digitized and quantitative analysis of co-localization rates was undertaken. Small bowel: most of AL-positive cells (56%) were αD-positive Paneth cells located within the base of the crypts (first set). In the second set, about 27% of AL-labeled cells were co-reactive for SY and CG, likely representing entero-endocrine cells. In the third set, the largest subpopulation of AL-positive cells was not co-reactive for other markers applied (89%); most of them were likely Paneth cells. Large bowel: co-localization of AL with αD was not detected (first set). In the second set, AL was frequently co-localized with the other three markers applied (68%). In the third set, AL was frequently co-localized with 5-HT and CG (31%) as well as with PY and 5-HT (22%). Due to its presence in various enteroendocrine as well as Paneth cells, AL may be involved in different physiological and pathological processes.


Alarin Enteroendocrine cells Epithelial cells Galanin family Paneth cells 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of NeuropathologyFriedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology/Optometry, Research Program Experimental OphthalmologyParacelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria
  3. 3.Department of AnatomyParacelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria
  4. 4.Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of PediatricsParacelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria
  5. 5.Institute of Anatomy and Cell BiologyFriedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

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