Utility of a public-available artificial intelligence in diagnosis of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

  • Jingyuan Yang
  • Chenxi Zhang
  • Erqian Wang
  • Youxin ChenEmail author
  • Weihong Yu
Retinal Disorders



To investigate the feasibility of training an artificial intelligence (AI) on a public-available AI platform to diagnose polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA).


Two methods using AI models were trained by a data set including 430 ICGA images of normal, neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD), and PCV eyes on a public-available AI platform. The one-step method distinguished normal, nvAMD, and PCV images simultaneously. The two-step method identifies normal and abnormal ICGA images at the first step and diagnoses PCV from the abnormal ICGA images at the second step. The method with higher performance was used to compare with retinal specialists and ophthalmologic residents on the performance of diagnosing PCV.


The two-step method had better performance, in which the precision was 0.911 and the recall was 0.911 at the first step, and the precision was 0.783, and the recall was 0.783 at the second step. For the test data set, the two-step method distinguished normal and abnormal images with an accuracy of 1 and diagnosed PCV with an accuracy of 0.83, which was comparable to retinal specialists and superior to ophthalmologic residents.


In this evaluation of ICGA images from normal, nvAMD, and PCV eyes, the models trained on a public-available AI platform had comparable performance to retinal specialists for diagnosing PCV. The utility of public-available AI platform might help everyone including ophthalmologists who had no AI-related resources, especially those in less developed areas, for future studies.


Artificial intelligence Deep learning Diagnosis Indocyanine green angiography Machine learning Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy 



Thanks are due to Xiao Zhang, Huan Chen, Ruoan Han, Bilei Zhang, Yuelin Wang, and Shan Wu for making diagnosis on data set and supporting this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

417_2019_4493_Fig2_ESM.png (260 kb)

Supplementary Fig. Schematic diagram of the methods. ICGA images were uploaded to the cloud platform, and each image was given a label of “Normal”, “Typical nvAMD”, or “PCV” based on the truth diagnosis. Then the models used in the two methods were trained and self-evaluated by the platform using corresponding ICGA images. Finally, the method of better performance was compared with human on test images (PNG 259 kb)

417_2019_4493_MOESM1_ESM.tif (2.5 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 2574 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College HospitalChinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingChina

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