Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the choriocapillary layer in treatment-naïve diabetic eyes
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To evaluate the capillary flow density (CFD) of choriocapillary (CC) microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in diabetic eyes and the association of CFD and systemic and metabolic factors.
Cross-sectional study. This study enrolled 282 eyes of 146 subjects, including 43 healthy control eyes, 56 diabetic eyes without diabetic retinopathy (DR), 43 eyes with mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 54 eyes with moderate NPDR, 38 eyes with severe NPDR, and 48 eyes with proliferative DR (PDR). CFD was measured in the CC layer. Clinical data were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify associated clinical variables.
CFD in the CC layer presented a downward trend with DR progression. Comparisons of CFD in the CC layer between adjacent stages of DR revealed significant differences between severe NPDR and PDR using both 3-mm and 6-mm scan patterns (P = 0.003, P = 0.001). CFD in the CC layer in DR with diabetic macular edema (DME) was less than that in DR without DME using both 3-mm and 6-mm scan patterns (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis in other locations, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and increased HbA1c were associated with CFD in the CC layer using both 3-mm and 6-mm scan patterns (all P values < 0.05).
OCT-A revealed decreased CFD in the CC layer in the PDR stage and the presence of DME. Diabetic patients with apparently decreased CFD should be assessed carefully under general conditions.
KeywordsDiabetes Diabetic choroidopathy Diabetic retinopathy Optical coherence tomography Optical coherence tomography angiography Flow area Flow density
Thanks are due to Chenxi Zhang, Minghang Pei, and Shan Wu for collecting data and supporting this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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