Implementations of 3D printing in ophthalmology
- 412 Downloads
The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of how to best utilize 3D printing in medicine, and more particularly in ophthalmology in order to enhance the clinicians’ ability to provide out-of-the-box solutions for unusual challenges that require patient personalization. In this review, we discuss the main applications of 3D printing for diseases of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye and discuss their current status and implementation. We aim to raise awareness among ophthalmologists and report current and future developments.
A computerized search from inception up to 2018 of the online electronic database PubMed was performed, using the following search strings: “3D,” “printing,” “ophthalmology,” and “bioprinting.” Additional data was extracted from relevant websites. The reference list in each relevant article was analyzed for additional relevant publications.
3D printing first appeared three decades ago. Nevertheless, the implementation and utilization of this technology in healthcare became prominent only in the last 5 years. 3D printing applications in ophthalmology are vast, including organ fabrication, medical devices, production of customized prosthetics, patient-tailored implants, and production of anatomical models for surgical planning and educational purposes.
The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology are extensive. 3D printing enables cost-effective design and production of instruments that aid in early detection of common ocular conditions, diagnostic and therapeutic devices built specifically for individual patients, 3D-printed contact lenses and intraocular implants, models that assist in surgery planning and improve patient and medical staff education, and more. Advances in bioprinting appears to be the future of 3D printing in healthcare in general, and in ophthalmology in particular, with the emerging possibility of printing viable tissues and ultimately the creation of a functioning cornea, and later retina. It is expected that the various applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology will become part of mainstream medicine.
Keywords3D printing Bioprinting Ophthalmology Cornea Retina
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Chen J (2018) Disruptive Technology. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/disruptive-technology.asp. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 2.Kodama H (1981) A scheme for three-dimensional display by automatic fabrication of three-dimensional model. IEICE Trans Electron 237–241Google Scholar
- 3.Alexandra P (2017) The complete guide to stereolithography (SLA) in 3D printing. 3Dnatives. https://www.3dnatives.com/en/stereolithography-explained100420174/. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 4.Mendoza HR (2015) Alain Le Méhauté, the man who submitted patent for SLA 3D printing before Chuck Hull. 3DPrint.com. https://3dprint.com/65466/reflections-alain-le-mehaute/. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 5.Freedman D (2011) Layer by layer. MIT Technol. Rev https://www.technologyreview.com/s/426391/layer-by-layer/. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 7.Langnau L (2016) How to determine 3D printing speed. Make Parts Fast. Digit. Netw. https://www.makepartsfast.com/determine-3d-printing-speed. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 18.Kite-Powell J (2014) Peking University implants first 3D printed vertebra. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/jenniferhicks/2014/08/19/peking-university-implants-first-3d-printed-vertebra/#7110c5c722c9. Accesed 28 Feb 2019
- 23.American Transplant Foundation (2018) 15 myths and concerns about living donation. Am. Transpl. Found. https://www.americantransplantfoundation.org/. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 26.Saunders S (2017) Biomedical research team in Spain working on 3D printed corneas to make up for lack of donors. 3DPrint.com. https://www.3dprint.com/184469/spain-3d-printed-cornea-project/. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 27.Woodley M (2017) Kiwi scientists 3D print corneas from fish scales. Insight. http://www.insightnews.com.au/Article3/1330/Kiwi-scientists-3D-print-corneas-from-fish-scales. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 37.Choi SW, Kwon HJ, Song WK (2018) Three-dimensional printing using open source software and JPEG images from optical coherence tomography of an epiretinal membrane patient. Acta Ophthalmol 399–402. https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13179
- 38.Maloca PM, Spaide RF, Rothenbuehler S et al (2017) Enhanced resolution and speckle-free three-dimensional printing of macular optical coherence tomography angiography. Acta Ophthalmol 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13567
- 39.Maloca PM, Tufail A, Hasler PW et al (2017) 3D printing of the choroidal vessels and tumours based on optical coherence tomography. Acta Ophthalmol 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13637
- 42.Dave TV, Tiple S, Vempati S et al (2018) Low-cost three-dimensional printed orbital template-assisted patient-specific implants for the correction of spherical orbital implant migration. Indian J Ophthalmol 66:1600–1607. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_472_18 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 49.Ayyildiz O (2018) Customised spectacles using 3-D printing technology. Clin Exp Optom 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/cxo.12795
- 51.Saunders S (2017) Johnson & Johnson announces new collaborations to develop biomedical innovation and advance 3D printing technology in healthcare. 3DPrint.com. https://www.3dprint.com/178341/johnson-johnson-collaboration/. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 52.Sun MG, Rojdamrongratana D, Rosenblatt MI et al (2018) 3D printing for low cost, rapid prototyping of eyelid crutches. Orbit 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/01676830.2018.1445760
- 54.Hong SC (2015) 3D printing and ophthalmology for the community. J Cytol Histol 6:e116Google Scholar
- 56.Saunders S (2017) Teenager uses AI, a 3D printed Lens, and a smartphone to develop portable system to diagnose a common eye disease. 3DPrint.com. https://3dprint.com/183144/portable-eye-diagnostic-system/. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
- 57.Bleicher A (2017) Teenage whiz kid invents an ai system to diagnose her grandfather’s eye disease. IEEE Spectr. https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-human-os/biomedical/diagnostics/teenage-whiz-kid-invents-an-ai-system-to-diagnose-her-grandfathers-eye-disease. Accessed 28 Feb 2019