Serum and aqueous humor vitamin D levels in patients with diabetic macular edema

  • Kyoung Lae Kim
  • Su Young Moon
  • Hye-Mi Noh
  • Sung Pyo Park
  • Yong-Kyu KimEmail author
Retinal Disorders



To compare serum and aqueous humor (AH) vitamin D levels between the patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and controls.


A total of 65 subjects (30 DME, 35 control) were included. One-third of the control group had hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy as underlying diseases. Serum and AH levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in each subject. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate factors associated with serum and AH vitamin D levels.


There were no significant differences in serum vitamin D levels between the DME (14.3 ± 9.1 ng/mL) and control (16.2 ± 8.0 ng/mL) groups (P = 0.374). However, eyes with DME (41.6 ± 8.0 ng/mL) had a higher AH level of vitamin D than control eyes (25.5 ± 4.1 ng/mL, P < 0.001). AH vitamin D level was significantly associated with the presence of DME (β = 0.775, P < 0.001). Serum and AH levels of vitamin D were not significantly correlated (r = − 0.157, P = 0.211).


Serum vitamin D levels did not significantly differ between the DME and control groups. Localized vitamin D level in the eye was independent from systemic vitamin D level and it might be another indicator of DME severity.


25-Hydroxyvitamin D Aqueous humor Diabetic retinopathy Macular edema 



This research was supported by Hallym University Research Fund 2016 (HURF-2016-59).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Kangdong Sacred Heart HospitalHallym University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Family Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart HospitalHallym University College of MedicineAnyang-siSouth Korea

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