Differences of body height, axial length, and refractive error at different ages in Kumejima study

  • Takehiro Yamashita
  • Aiko Iwase
  • Hiroshi Sakai
  • Hiroto Terasaki
  • Taiji SakamotoEmail author
  • Makoto Araie



To determine the relationships between the axial length (AL), refractive error (RE), and body height (BH) at different ages of a genetically-stable population in Kumejima, Japan.


Cross-sectional, population-based study. Residents of Kumejima who were ≥ 40-years old were studied. The eligible residents had a thorough ocular examinations including measurements of the AL, RE, and BH. The subjects were divided into decade groups. The relationships between the AL, the RE, and the BH of the different decades were determined.


Reliable measurements of the AL of the right eyes were obtained from 2198 (1103 men and 1095 women) normal subjects. There was a significant and negative correlation between the age and the BH (r = −0.44, P < 0.001) and the AL (r = −0.27, P < 0.001). There were significant and positive correlations between the BH and AL in all subjects (r = 0.38, P < 0.001). There was a significant and positive correlation between the BH and the AL in all age brackets (r = 0.26~0.49, P < 0.001). There was a significant and positive correlation between the age and RE (spherical equivalent; r = 0.49, P < 0.001). There were significant and negative correlations between the BH and RE in all subjects (r = −0.29, P < 0.001).


The younger individuals tend to be taller, have longer AL, and are more myopic. Considering the marked improvement of the nutritional status during the growth period of each generation and its close association with BH, nutrition may be one of factors that is related to the increase in the prevalence of myopia in the younger generation.


Myopia Axial length Body height Body weight Kumejima study 



The authors thank Professor Duco Hamasaki of Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, FL, for providing critical discussions and suggestions to our study and editing of the final manuscript.


This work was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI grant number JP17591845.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyKagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesKagoshimaJapan
  2. 2.Tajimi Iwase Eye ClinicGifuJapan
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of the Ryukyus Faculty of MedicineOkinawaJapan
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyKanto Central HospitalTokyoJapan

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