RETRACTED ARTICLE: A comparison of risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese patients

  • Xiao-Li Chen
  • Qin-Rui Hu
  • Yu-Jing Bai
  • Yu Deng
  • Hai-Wei Wang
  • Shan Liu
  • Yin-Lin Wang
  • Yan-Kun YueEmail author
Retinal Disorders



Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are important vision-threatening diseases worldwide. For effective treatment, the risk factors for the diseases merit investigation. This study aimed to compare the risk factors for nAMD vs. PCV in Chinese patients.


A total of 946 participants were recruited in this case-control study, including 281 patients with nAMD, 306 patients with PCV, and 359 controls. All participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Information on risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the difference in risk factors between nAMD and PCV. In a subgroup of subjects, serum lipid data were obtained and analyzed.


Risk factors for nAMD included older age (OR 1.03, P = 0.001), male gender (OR 1.55, P = 0.020), asthma (OR 2.50, P = 0.028), smoking (OR 1.92, P = 0.001), and family history (OR 6.82, P = 0.001), while smoking (OR 1.67, P = 0.013) was the only risk factor for PCV. Compared to patients with PCV, patients with nAMD were more likely to be older and suffer from hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, rheumatism, and tumor. Interestingly, higher levels of high-density lipoprotein were positively associated with PCV in the subgroup analysis (OR 7.74, P = 0.011). Besides, results were quite different between the combination of patients with nAMD and PCV and patients with nAMD or PCV alone.


The risk factors for nAMD and PCV is varying with the exception of smoking. Our findings suggest that different strategies might be applied in the clinical management and scientific research on nAMD and PCV.


Age-related macular degeneration Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy Risk factor Asthma Hyperlipidemia 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Li Chen
    • 1
  • Qin-Rui Hu
    • 2
  • Yu-Jing Bai
    • 3
  • Yu Deng
    • 1
  • Hai-Wei Wang
    • 1
  • Shan Liu
    • 1
  • Yin-Lin Wang
    • 1
  • Yan-Kun Yue
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Fuxing HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual ScienceXiamen Eye Centre of Xiamen University, Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Medical College of Xiamen UniversityXiamenChina
  3. 3.ShenZhen Sibionics Co., LtdShenZhenChina

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