Can epilepsy be treated by antibiotics?
There is mounting evidence for the role of the gut microbiota and gut–brain interactions in neurological diseases. We present six patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who attained temporary seizure freedom during antibiotic treatment. The effect on seizure frequency waned within 2 weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that antibiotic treatments may have a short-term effect, through gut microbiota disruption, on gut–brain interactions and ultimately seizure frequency. This observed impact of antibiotics on seizure frequency hints at a possible role of the gut microbiota in epilepsy and its manifestations. This begs the question: can epilepsy be treated by antibiotics? Or perhaps in a broader sense: can alterations in the gut microbiota be used as a treatment modality in drug-resistant epilepsy? This concept and the six intriguing cases provide interesting leads for epilepsy management.
KeywordsMicrobiome Epilepsy Ketogenic diet Antibiotics
No external funding was obtained for this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.