Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of 29 Y-STR loci in the Tibetan population from Sichuan Province, Southwest China
Y-Chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are widely applied in human forensic cases and population genetic studies. There is a lack of information about the Sichuan Tibetan population in the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD, https://yhrd.org, release 59). In this study, 502 unrelated male individuals residing in the Sichuan Province were recruited and genotyped at 29 Y-STR loci. A total of 479 haplotypes were observed, 460 (96.03%) of which were unique. The haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) for the Sichuan Tibetan population were 0.9998 and 0.9542, respectively. To reveal the genetic diversities and relationships between the Chinese Sichuan Tibetan and 29 other previously reported populations, forensic parameter analysis, multi-dimensional scaling, and phylogenetic reconstruction were performed. The results showed that the Sichuan Tibetan population was relatively isolated from other populations, suggesting that genetic proximity is in line with geographical boundaries.
KeywordsTibetan population Y-STR Haplotypes Population genetic analysis
The authors thank the voluntary participants in this study.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 81772030, and 81701866), the Postdoctoral Fund of Sichuan University (No.2017SCU12049), and the Outstanding Youth Fund of Sichuan University (No. 2016SCU04A07).
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sichuan University and a written informed consent letter was obtained from each participant.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 5.Vermeulen M, Wollstein A, van der Gaag K, Lao O, Xue Y, Wang Q, Roewer L, Knoblauch H, Tyler-Smith C, de Knijff P, Kayser M (2009) Improving global and regional resolution of male lineage differentiation by simple single-copy Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms. Forensic Sci Int Genet 3(4):205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Purps J, Siegert S, Willuweit S, Nagy M, Alves C, Salazar R, Angustia SMT, Santos LH, Anslinger K, Bayer B, Ayub Q, Wei W, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Bafalluy MB, Martínez-Jarreta B, Egyed B, Balitzki B, Tschumi S, Ballard D, Court DS, Barrantes X, Bäßler G, Wiest T, Berger B, Niederstätter H, Parson W, Davis C, Budowle B, Burri H, Borer U, Koller C, Carvalho EF, Domingues PM, Chamoun WT, Coble MD, Hill CR, Corach D, Caputo M, D’Amato ME, Davison S, Decorte R, Larmuseau MHD, Ottoni C, Rickards O, Lu D, Jiang C, Dobosz T, Jonkisz A, Frank WE, Furac I, Gehrig C, Castella V, Grskovic B, Haas C, Wobst J, Hadzic G, Drobnic K, Honda K, Hou Y, Zhou D, Li Y, Hu S, Chen S, Immel UD, Lessig R, Jakovski Z, Ilievska T, Klann AE, García CC, de Knijff P, Kraaijenbrink T, Kondili A, Miniati P, Vouropoulou M, Kovacevic L, Marjanovic D, Lindner I, Mansour I, al-Azem M, Andari AE, Marino M, Furfuro S, Locarno L, Martín P, Luque GM, Alonso A, Miranda LS, Moreira H, Mizuno N, Iwashima Y, Neto RSM, Nogueira TLS, Silva R, Nastainczyk-Wulf M, Edelmann J, Kohl M, Nie S, Wang X, Cheng B, Núñez C, Pancorbo MM, Olofsson JK, Morling N, Onofri V, Tagliabracci A, Pamjav H, Volgyi A, Barany G, Pawlowski R, Maciejewska A, Pelotti S, Pepinski W, Abreu-Glowacka M, Phillips C, Cárdenas J, Rey-Gonzalez D, Salas A, Brisighelli F, Capelli C, Toscanini U, Piccinini A, Piglionica M, Baldassarra SL, Ploski R, Konarzewska M, Jastrzebska E, Robino C, Sajantila A, Palo JU, Guevara E, Salvador J, Ungria MCD, Rodriguez JJR, Schmidt U, Schlauderer N, Saukko P, Schneider PM, Sirker M, Shin KJ, Oh YN, Skitsa I, Ampati A, Smith TG, Calvit LS, Stenzl V, Capal T, Tillmar A, Nilsson H, Turrina S, de Leo D, Verzeletti A, Cortellini V, Wetton JH, Gwynne GM, Jobling MA, Whittle MR, Sumita DR, Wolańska-Nowak P, Yong RYY, Krawczak M, Nothnagel M, Roewer L (2014) A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci. Forensic Sci Int Genet 12:12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Walsh PS, Metzger DA, Higuchi R (1991) Chelex-100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA for Pcr-based typing from forensic material. Biotechniques 10(4):506–513Google Scholar
- 9.Nei M, Tajima F (1981) DNA polymorphism detectable by restriction endonucleases. Genetics 97(1):145–163Google Scholar
- 12.Zou X, Wang Z, He G, Wang M, Su Y, Liu J, Chen P, Wang S, Gao B, Li Z, Hou Y (2018) Population genetic diversity and phylogenetic characteristics for high-altitude adaptive Kham Tibetan revealed by DNATyperTM 19 amplification system. Front Genet 9:630Google Scholar