International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 132, Issue 6, pp 1769–1777 | Cite as

Age estimation combining radiographic information of two dental and four skeletal predictors in children and subadults

  • Akiko Kumagai
  • Guy Willems
  • Ademir Franco
  • Patrick ThevissenEmail author
Original Article


Improved age estimates may result from combining different age predictors. This study aimed to validate age estimation performances combining the radiographic development of teeth, cervical vertebrae, hand and wrist bones, skull, and mandible. The sampled consisted of 256 individuals aged between 4 and 20 years. Bayes’ rule with a multivariate continuation ratio model was applied for the distribution of the dental scores. The additional age information of the skeletal variables was assessed extending the dental model separately and combining the variables. The performances of all models were quantified and compared using mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean squared error (RMSE). The best performance resulted combining all variables (ME − 0.04 for F and M; MAE 0.91 for F and 0.95 for M; RMSE 1.14 for F and 1.19 for M). To improve performances and minimize radiation doses, the combination of teeth and hand and wrist bones information is recommended.


Forensic Odontology Age estimation Skeletal and Dental Development 


Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval was provided by the Ethical Committee of the School of Dentistry at Iwate Medical University under reference no. 01237 according to the Declaration of Helsinki regarding human experimentation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akiko Kumagai
    • 1
  • Guy Willems
    • 2
  • Ademir Franco
    • 1
  • Patrick Thevissen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Imaging and Pathology, Forensic OdontologyKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Oral Health Sciences, Orthodontics, KU Leuven and DentistryUniversity Hospitals LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

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