International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 133, Issue 4, pp 1015–1027 | Cite as

Technical note: developmental validation of a novel 6-dye typing system with 36 Y-STR loci

  • Weian Du
  • Peipei Feng
  • Hongyan Huang
  • Weibin Wu
  • Lei Zhang
  • Yulin Guo
  • Changhui Liu
  • Hong Liu
  • Chao LiuEmail author
  • Ling ChenEmail author
Methods Paper


Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have proven to be very useful in investigating sexual assault cases and in paternity lineage differentiation. However, currently available commercial Y-STR multiplex amplification systems bear the limitations in the identification of related males from the same paternal lineage due to there being an insufficient number of loci in any single amplification kit. The aim of this study was to establish and validate a novel 6-dye, 36-plex Y-STR multiplex amplification system that incorporated all of the loci present in the Yfiler™ Plus kit (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYF387S1, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS449, DYS456, DYS458, DYS460, DYS481, DYS518, DYS533, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627, DYS635, Y_GATA_H4) as well as a further nine highly polymorphic Y-STR loci (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS522, DYS527a/b, DYS549, DYS596, DYS643). The novel system was optimized and validated by a series of studies that tested the effect of different PCR-based conditions as well as the species specificity, sensitivity, stability, stutter precision, suitability for use on DNA mixtures, reproducibility, and parallel testing of the system, as well as its performance on casework samples and population analysis, according to the SWGDAM developmental validation guidelines. A total of 246 haplotypes were found for the 36 Y-STRs among 247 Guangdong Han unrelated males. Collectively, the results demonstrate that the developed 36-plex Y-STR system is sensitive, robust, reliable, and highly informative for use in forensic genetics.


36-plex Y-STR system Y-STR Developmental validation Forensic genetics 


Funding information

This work was supported by a grant from the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 81501627), Innovative Training Program for College Students (grant no. 201612121083), and Open project of Key Laboratory of Forensic Genetics in Ministry of Public Security (2015FGKFKT03).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

414_2018_1864_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1176 kb)
414_2018_1864_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (53 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 52 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weian Du
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peipei Feng
    • 1
  • Hongyan Huang
    • 1
  • Weibin Wu
    • 1
  • Lei Zhang
    • 2
  • Yulin Guo
    • 2
  • Changhui Liu
    • 4
  • Hong Liu
    • 4
  • Chao Liu
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Ling Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Forensic MedicineSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.AGCU ScienTech IncorporationWuxiChina
  3. 3.Guangdong Homy Genetics IncorporationFoshanChina
  4. 4.Guangzhou Forensic Science InstituteGuangzhouChina

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