A new EPR dosimeter based on glutamic acid for radiation processing application

  • W. B. Beshir
  • Yasser S. SolimanEmail author
  • A. A. Abdel-Fattah
  • Ramy Amer Fahim
Original Article


l-Glutamic acid (L-GA) pellets (3.8 mm × 4 mm) and powder dosimeters were studied in the dose range of 0.1–150 kGy using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The EPR spectra of irradiated L-GA pellets showed an EPR signal with eight lines, and the intensity of the signal increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The results obtained in terms of the energy-absorption coefficients suggest a similar performance of the L-GA pellets as compared to alanine pellets. The value of the temperature coefficient for the L-GA pellets during irradiation was around − 0.08%/°C which is lower than that reported for alanine dosimeter, 0.14%/°C. The influence of humidity on the pellet response was found to be negligible; i.e., the increase in response was only about 2% for a relative humidity of up to 94%. The response of L-GA powder reached stability 4 h after irradiation and continued to be stable until 47 days after irradiation. In contrast, the response of the L-GA pellet dosimeter reached stability 22 h after irradiation and continued to be stable until 8 days after irradiation. For routine applications, the L-GA pellet dosimeter should be analyzed during the stable period after irradiation, to minimize the uncertainties in dose assessment. The overall two-sigma uncertainties in absorbed dose estimation were 5.1% and 3.9% for the dose ranges of 0.1–15 kGy and 15–150 kGy, respectively. It is concluded that L-GA pellets represent a promising dosimeter material for quantification of radiation doses in food irradiation, medical sterilization and polymer modification.


l-Glutamic acid Electron paramagnetic resonance Pellet dosimeter Radiation dosimetry EPR spectroscopy 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abdel-fattah AA, Ezz El-Din H, Abdel-rehim F (2004) New alanine/EPR dosimeter using EVA copolymer/paraffin as A binder for high-dose radiation dosimetry: performance characterization. Int J Polym Mater Polym Biomater 53:927–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Fattah AA, Abdel-Rehim F, Soliman YS (2012) A new label dosimetry system based on pentacosa-diynoic acid monomer for low dose applications. Radiat Phys Chem 81:70–76ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkhorayef M, Mansour A, Sulieman A et al (2017) Evaluation of dose uncertainty in radiation processing using EPR spectroscopy and butylated hydroxytoluene rods as dosimetry system. Radiat Phys Chem 141:50–56ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakan MH, Aydin M, Osmanolu E (2010) Investigation of 60Co γ-irradiated l-(−) malic acid, N-methyl-dl-valine and l-glutamic acid γ-ethyl ester by electron paramagnetic resonance technique. J Mol Struct 983:200–202ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beshir WB, Abdel-Fattah AA, Abdel-Rehim F, Hassan HM (2012) EPR dosimetric properties of radiation—formed radicals in arginine monohydrochloride. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 116:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bracco P, Costa L, Luda MP, Billingham N (2018) A review of experimental studies of the role of free-radicals in polyethylene oxidation. Polym Degrad Stab 155:67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen F, Graeff CFO, Baffa O (2007) Response of l-alanine and 2-methylalanine minidosimeters for K-band (24 GHz) EPR dosimetry. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect B Beam Interact Mater At 264:277–281ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ciesielski B, Wielopolski L (1994) The effects of dose and radiation quality on the shape and power saturation of the EPR signal in alanine. Radiat Res 140:105–111ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Desrosiers MF, Peters M, Puhl JM (2009) A study of the alanine dosimeter irradiation temperature coefficient from 25 to 80 °C. Radiat Phys Chem 78:465–467. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eid S, Ebraheem S, Sobhy A (2014) ESR dosimetric properties of sodium glutamate. Egypt J Rad Sci Appl 27:151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gallo S, Iacoviello G, Panzeca S, Veronese I, Bartolotta A, Dondi D, Gueli AM, Loi G, Longo A, Mones E, Marrale M (2017) Characterization of phenolic pellets for ESR dosimetry in photon beam radiotherapy. Radiat Environ Biophys 56:471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gancheva V, Sagstuen E, Yordanov ND (2006) Study on the EPR/dosimetric properties of some substituted alanines. Radiat Phys Chem 75:329–335ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Greenspan L (1977) Humidity fixed points of binary saturated aqueous solutions. J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect A Phys Chem 81:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guidelli EJ, Lima IS, Baffa O (2018) Monosodium glutamate for accidental, retrospective, and medical dosimetry using electron spin resonance. Radiat Environ Biophys 57:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansen JW, Olsen KJ (1989) Predicting decay in free-radical concentration in l-α-alanine following high-LET radiation exposures. Int J Radiat Appl Instrum Part A Appl Radiat Isot 40:10–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hassan GM, Ikeya M (2000) Metal ion-organic compound for high sensitive ESR dosimetry. Appl Radiat Isot 52:1247–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hubbell JH, Seltzer SM (2004) Tables of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients (version 1.4). Accessed 2019
  18. ISO/ASTM 51707 (2015) Guide for estimating uncertainties in dosimetry for radiation processing. In: Annual book of ASTM standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  19. ISO/ASTM51607 (2013) Practice for use of the alanine-EPR dosimetry system. In: Annual book of ASTM standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  20. Khoury HJ, da Silva EJ, Mehta K, de Barros VS, Asfora VK, Guzzo PL, Parker AG (2015) Alanine-EPR as a transfer standard dosimetry system for low energy X radiation. Radiat Phys Chem 116:147–150ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kornacka EM, Przybytniak G, Świeszkowski W (2013) The influence of crystallinity on radiation stability of UHMWPE. Radiat Phys Chem 84:151–156ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lelie S, Hole EO, Duchateau M, Schroeyers W, Schreurs S, Verellen D (2013) The investigation of lithium formate hydrate, sodium dithionate and N-methyl taurine as clinical EPR dosimeters. Radiat Meas 59:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lin WC, Mcdowell CA, Rowlands JR (1961) Electron spin resonance of X-ray irradiated single crystals of glutamic acid hydrochloride. J Chem Phys 35:757–758ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lund A, Olsson S, Bonora M, Lund E, Gustafsson H (2002) New materials for ESR dosimetry. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 58:1301–1311ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lund E, Gustafsson H, Danilczuk M, Sastry MD, Lund A, Vestad TA, Malinen E, Hole EO, Sagstuen E (2005) Formates and dithionates: sensitive EPR-dosimeter materials for radiation therapy. Appl Radiat Isot 62:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maghraby A, Mansour A, Tarek E (2012) Taurine for EPR dosimetry. Radiat Environ Biophys 51:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nagy V, Puhl JM, Desrosiers MF (2000) Advancements in accuracy of the alanine dosimetry system. Part 2. The influence of the irradiation temperature. Radiat Phys Chem 57:1–9ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nette HP, Onori S, Fattibene P, Regulla D, Wieser A (1993) Coordinated research efforts for establishing an in international radiotherapy dose intercomparison service based on the alanine/ESR system. Appl Radiat Isot 44:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ogawa M, Ishigure K, Oshima K (1980) ESR study of irradiated single crystals of amino acids—I. Glutamic acid and glutamic acid hydrochloride. Radiat Phys Chem 16:281–287ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Olsson SK, Lund E, Lund A (2000) Development of ammonium tartrate as an ESR dosimeter material for clinical purposes. Appl Radiat Isot 52:1235–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Olsson S, Sagstuen E, Bonora M, Lund A (2002) EPR dosimetric properties of 2-methylalanine: EPR, ENDOR and FT-EPR investigations. Radiat Res 157:113–121ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Osmanoǧlu Ş, Aydin M, Osmanoǧlu YE, Dicle IY, Başkan MH (2011) Structure and behaviour of the free radicals generated in gamma irradiated amino acid and iminodiacetic acid derivatives. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 78:1611–1614ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Piroonpan T, Katemake P, Panritdam E, Pasanphan W (2017) Alternative chitosan-based EPR dosimeter applicable for a relatively wide range of gamma radiation doses. Radiat Phys Chem 141:57–65ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Prydz S, Henriksen T (1961) Radiation induced free radicals in alanine and some related amino acids. Electron spin resonance studies. Acta Chem Scand 15:791–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Regulla DF, Deffner U (1982) Dosimetry by ESR spectroscopy of alanine. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 33:1101–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rushdi MAH, Abdel-Fattah AA, Sherif MM, Soliman SS, Mansour A (2014) Strontium sulfate as an EPR dosimeter for radiation technology application. Radiat Phys Chem 106:130–135ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rushdi MAH, Abdel-Fattah AA, Soliman YS (2017) Radiation-induced defects in strontium carbonate rod for EPR dosimetry applications. Radiat Phys Chem 131:1–6ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sagstuen E, Hole EO (2009) Radiation produced radicals. In: Brustolon M, Giamello E (eds) Electron paramagnetic resonance, a practitioner’s toolkit. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 325–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sharpe P, Miller A (2009) Guidelines for the calibration of routine dosimetry systems for use in radiation processing. NPL report CIRM 29Google Scholar
  40. Sleptchonok OF, Nagy V, Desrosiers MF (2000) Advancements in accuracy of the alanine dosimetry system. Part 1. The effects of environmental humidity. Radiat Phys Chem 57:115–133ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Soliman YS, Abdel-Fattah AA (2012) Magnesium lactate mixed with EVA polymer/paraffin as an EPR dosimeter for radiation processing application. Radiat Phys Chem 81:1910–1916ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Soliman YS, Ali LI, Moustafa H, Tadros SM (2014) EPR dosimetric properties of 2-methylalanine pellet for radiation processing application. Radiat Phys Chem 102:11–15ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wexler A, Hasegawa S (1954) Relative humidity-temperature relationships of some saturated salt solutions in the temperature range 0 °C to 50 °C. J Res Natl Bur Stand 53:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Center for Radiation Research and TechnologyAtomic Energy AuthorityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations