Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Polymineralic inclusions in oxide minerals of the Afrikanda alkaline-ultramafic complex: Implications for the evolution of perovskite mineralisation

  • 80 Accesses

Abstract

The exceptional accumulation of perovskite in the alkaline-ultramafic Afrikanda complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) led to the study of polymineralic inclusions hosted in perovskite and magnetite to understand the development of the perovskite-rich zones in the olivinites, clinopyroxenites and silicocarbonatites. The abundance of inclusions varies across the three perovskite textures, with numerous inclusions hosted in the fine-grained equigranular perovskite, fewer inclusions in the coarse-grained interlocked perovskite and rare inclusions in the massive perovskite. A variety of silicate, carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and oxide phases are assembled randomly and in variable proportions in the inclusions. Our observations reveal that the inclusions are not bona fide melt inclusions. We propose that the inclusions represent material trapped during subsolidus sintering of magmatic perovskite. The continuation of the sintering process resulted in the coarsening of inclusion-rich subhedral perovskite into inclusion-poor anhedral and massive perovskite. These findings advocate the importance of inclusion studies for interpreting the origin of oxide minerals and their associated economic deposits and suggest that the formation of large scale accumulations of minerals in other oxide deposits may be a result of annealing of individual disseminated grains.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Afanasyev BV (2011) Mineral resources of the alkaline–ultramafic massifs of the Kola Peninsula. Roza Vetrov, St. Petersburg, pp 224 (in Russian)

  2. Armbrustmacher TJ (1981) The complex of alkaline Rocks at Iron Hill, Powderhorn district, Gunnison county, Colorado. In: Callender JF (ed) Epis RC. New Mexico Geological Society, Colorado, pp 293–296

  3. Barbosa ESR, Brod JA, Junqueira-Brod TC, Dantas EL, de Cordeiro PF, Gomide CS (2012) Bebedourite from its type area (Salitre I complex): A key petrogenetic series in the Late-Cretaceous Alto Paranaíba kamafugite–carbonatite–phoscorite association, central Brazil. Lithos 144:56–72

  4. Borisova AY, Ceuleneer G, Kamenetsky VS, Arai S, Béjina F, Abily B, Bindeman IN, Polvé M, De Parseval P, Aigouy T, Pokrovski GS (2012) A new view on the petrogenesis of the oman ophiolite chromitites from microanalyses of chromite-hosted inclusions. J Petrol 53(12):2411–2440

  5. Borrok DM, Kelser SE, Boer RH, Essene EJ (1998) The Vergenoeg magnetite-fluorite deposit, South Africa: Support for a hydrothermal model for massive iron oxide deposits. Econ Geol 93:564–586

  6. Brod JA (1999) Petrology and geochemistry of the Tapira alkaline complex, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Dissertation. Durham University

  7. Butcher AR, Merkle RK (1987) Postcumulus modification of magnetite grains in the upper zone of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Lithos 20:247–260

  8. Campbell LS, Henderson P, Wall F, Nielsen TF (1997) Rare earth chemistry of perovskite group minerals from the Gardiner Complex, East Greenland. Mineral Mag 61:197–212

  9. Chakhmouradian AR, Mitchell RH (1997) Compositional variation of perovskite-group minerals from the carbonatite complexes of the Kola Alkaline Province, Russia. Can Miner 35:1293–1310

  10. Chakhmouradian AR, Zaitsev AN (1999) Calcite-amphibole-clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites I. Oxide minerals. Can Miner 37:177–198

  11. Chakhmouradian AR, Zaitsev AN (2002) Calcite–amphibole–clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites III. Silicate minerals. Can Miner 40(5):1347–1374

  12. Chakhmouradian AR, Zaitsev AN (2004) Afrikanda: An association of ultramafic, alkaline and alkali-silica-rich carbonatitic rocks from mantle-derived melts. In: Wall F, Zaitsev AN (eds) Phoscorites and carbonatites from mantle to mine: The key example of the Kola Alkaline Province. Mineralogical Society (UK) Series, London, pp 247–291

  13. Christiansen FG (1985) Deformation fabric and microstructures in ophiolitic chromitites and host ultramafics, Sultanate of Oman. Geol Rundsch 74:61–76

  14. Christiansen FG (1986) Deformation of chromite: SEM investigations. Tectonophysics 121:175–196

  15. Danyushevsky LV, McNeill AW, Sobolev AV (2002) Experimental and petrological studies of melt inclusions in phenocrysts from mantle-derived magmas: an overview of techniques, advantages and complications. Chem Geol 183:5–24

  16. Dawson JB (1998) Peralkaline nephelinite-natrocarbonatite relationships at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. J Petrol 39:2077–2094

  17. Dawson JB, Hawthorn JB (1973) Magmatic sedimentation and carbonatitic differentiation in kimberlite sills at Benfontein, South Africa. J Geol Soc 129:61–85

  18. Downes H, Balaganskaya E, Beard A, Liferovich R, Demaiffe D (2005) Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola Alkaline Province: A review. Lithos 85:48–75

  19. Ferrero S, Angel RJ (2018) Micropetrology: Are inclusions grains of truth? J Petrol 59:1671–1700

  20. Force ER (1991) Geology of titanium-mineral deposits. Geological Society of America, Colorado, p 112

  21. Ghisler M (1976) The geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the pre-orogenic archaean stratiform chromite deposits at Fiskenaesset. Monograph Series on Mineral Deposits, Greb. Borntraeger, West Greenland, p 156

  22. Guzmics T, Mitchell RH, Szabó C, Berkesi M, Milke R, Ratter K (2012) Liquid immiscibility between silicate, carbonate and sulfide melts in melt inclusions hosted in co-precipitated minerals from Kerimasi volcano (Tanzania): evolution of carbonated nephelinitic magma. Contrib Miner Petrol 164:101–122

  23. Herz N (1976) Titanium deposits in alkalic igneous rocks. In: Geology and Resources of Titanium, Geological Survey, pp 1–5

  24. Hou B, Keeling J, Van Gosen BS (2017) Geological and exploration models of beach placer deposits, integrated from case-studies of Southern Australia. Ore Geol Rev 80:437–459

  25. Hulbert L, Von Gruenewaldt G (1985) Textural and compositional features of chromite in the lower and critical zones of the Bushveld Complex south of Potgietersrus. Econ Geol 80:872–895

  26. Irvine T (1977) Origin of chromitite layers in the Muskox intrusion and other stratiform intrusions: A new interpretation. Geology 5:273–277

  27. Johnson E, Hollister L (1995) Syndeformational fluid trapping in quartz: determining the pressure-temperature conditions of deformation from fluid inclusions and the formation of pure CO2 fluid inclusions during grain-boundary migration. J Metamorph Geol 13:239–249

  28. Jones A, Ralph B, Hansen N (1979) Subgrain coalescence and the nucleation of recrystallization at grain boundaries in aluminium. Proc Royal Soc London 368:345–357

  29. Kamenetsky VS, Kamenetsky MB (2010) Magmatic fluids immiscible with silicate melts: examples from inclusions in phenocrysts and glasses, and implications for magma evolution and metal transport. Geofluids 10:293–311

  30. Kogarko L, Plant D, Henderson C, Kjarsgaard B (1991) Na-rich carbonate inclusions in perovskite and calzirtite from the Guli intrusive Ca-carbonatite, Polar Siberia. Contrib Miner Petrol 109:124–129

  31. Kogarko L, Henderson C, Pacheco H (1995) Primary Ca-rich carbonatite magma and carbonate-silicate-sulphide liquid immiscibility in the upper mantle. Contrib Miner Petrol 121:267–274

  32. Kukharenko A, Orlova M, Bulakh A (1965) The Caledonian complex of ultrabasic, alkaline rocks, and carbonatites of Kola Peninsula and Northern Karelia. Geology 19:145–162

  33. Latypov R, Chistyakova S, Mukherjee R (2017) A novel hypothesis for origin of massive chromitites in the Bushveld Igneous Complex. J Petrol 1:41

  34. Li JC (1962) Possibility of subgrain rotation during recrystallization. J Appl Phys 33:2958–2965

  35. Lorand J, Cottin J (1987) Na-Ti-Zr-H 2 O-rich mineral inclusions indicating postcumulus chrome-spinel dissolution and recrystallization in the Western Laouni mafic intrusion, Algeria. Contrib Miner Petrol 97:251–263

  36. Martins T, Kressall R, Medici L, Chakhmouradian AR (2017) Cancrinite–vishnevite solid solution from Cinder Lake (Manitoba, Canada): crystal chemistry and implications for alkaline igneous rocks. Mineral Mag 81:1261–1277

  37. McElduff B, Stumpfl E (1991) The chromite deposits of the Troodos complex, Cyprus - Evidence for the role of a fluid phase accompanying chromite formation. Miner Deposita 26:307–318

  38. McOnie A, Fawcett JJ, James R (1975) The stability of intermediate chlorites of the clinochlore-daphnite series at 2 kbar PH2O. Am Miner 60:1047–1062

  39. Nielsen TFD (1980) The petrology of a melilitolite, melteigite, carbonatite and syenite ring dike system, in the Gardiner complex, East Greenland. Lithos 13:181–197

  40. Nielsen TFD, Solovova IP, Veksler IV (1997) Parental melts of melilitolite and origin of alkaline carbonatite: Evidence from crystallised melt inclusions, Gardiner complex. Contrib Miner Petrol 126:331–344

  41. Panina LI (2005) Multiphase carbonate-salt immiscibility in carbonatite melts: Data on melt inclusions from the Krestovskiy massif minerals (Polar Siberia). Contrib Miner Petrol 150:19–36

  42. Pekov IV, Olysych LV, Chukanov NV, Zubkova NV, Pushcharovsky DY, Van KV, Giester G, Tillmanns E (2011) Crystal chemistry of cancrinite-group minerals with an AB-type framework: A review and new data. I Chemical and structural variations. Can Miner 49:1129–1150

  43. Potter NJ, Ferguson MR, Kamenetsky VS, Chakhmouradian AR, Sharygin VV, Thompson JM, Goemann K (2018) Textural evolution of perovskite in the Afrikanda alkaline–ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula Russia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 173:100

  44. Pushkarev EV, Kamenetsky VS, Morozova AV, Khiller VV, Glavatskykh SP, Rodemann T (2015) Ontogeny of ore Cr-spinel and composition of inclusions as indicators of the pneumatolytic–hydrothermal origin of PGM-bearing chromitites from Kondyor massif, the Aldan Shield. Geol Ore Depos 57:352–380

  45. Rios PR, Siciliano F Jr, Sandim HRZ, Plaut RL, Padilha AF (2005) Nucleation and growth during recrystallization. Mater Res 8:225–238

  46. Roedder E (1984) Fluid inclusions. Reviews in mineralogy, Volume 12. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, pp 646

  47. Sobolev A (1996) Melt inclusions in minerals as a source of principle petrological information. Petrology 4:209–220

  48. Veksler I, Nielsen T, Sokolov S (1998) Mineralogy of crystallized melt inclusions from Gardiner and Kovdor ultramafic alkaline complexes: Implications for carbonatite genesis. J Petrol 39:2015–2031

  49. Yagi K, Kikuchi T, Kakuta H (1968) Thermal decomposition of pectolite and its hydrothermal synthesis Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University Series 4. Geol Mineral 14:123–134

  50. Yudovskaya MA, Kinnaird JA (2010) Chromite in the Platreef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa): Occurrence and evolution of its chemical composition. Miner Depos 45:369–391

  51. Zaitsev AN, Chakhmouradian AR (2002) Calcite - amphibole - clinopyroxene rocks from the Afrikanda Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites. II. Oxysalt minerals. Can Mineral 40(1):103–120

Download references

Acknowledgements

Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre (Russian Academy of Sciences) in Apatity donated samples for this study. Financial support was provided by the Australian Research Council (Discovery Grant DP130100257, 2013–2015) and Russian Science Foundation (grant #19-17-13013) to V. Kamenetsky.

Author information

Correspondence to N. J. Potter.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by Chris Ballhaus.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Potter, N.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., Chakhmouradian, A.R. et al. Polymineralic inclusions in oxide minerals of the Afrikanda alkaline-ultramafic complex: Implications for the evolution of perovskite mineralisation. Contrib Mineral Petrol 175, 18 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-020-1654-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Perovskite
  • Inclusions
  • Polymineralic
  • Sintering
  • Ore deposits
  • Afrikanda