Advertisement

Effects of superheating magnitude on olivine growth

  • Emily C. First
  • Tanis C. Leonhardi
  • Julia E. HammerEmail author
Original Paper
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

Magmatic superheating is a condition with relevance to natural systems as well as experimental studies of crystallization kinetics. Magmas on Earth and other planetary bodies may become superheated during adiabatic ascent from the mantle or as a consequence of meteorite impact-generated crustal melting. Experimental studies of igneous processes commonly employ superheating in the homogenization of synthetic starting materials. We performed 1-atmosphere dynamic crystallization experiments to study the effects of superliquidus thermal history on the morphologies and compositions of subsequently grown olivine crystals. An ultramafic volcanic rock with abundant olivine was fused above the experimentally determined liquidus temperature (1395 °C), held for 0, 3, or 12 h, cooled at 25 °C h−1, and quenched from 200 °C below the liquidus, all at constant fO2, corresponding to FMQ-2 ± 0.2 log units. An increase in olivine morphologic instability is correlated with superheating magnitude, parameterized as the integrated time the sample is held above the liquidus (“TtL”;  °C h). We infer that a delay in nucleation, which intensifies monotonically with increasing TtL, causes crystal growth to be increasingly rapid. This result indicates that the structural relaxation time scale controlling the formation of crystal nuclei is (a) far longer than the time scale associated with viscous flow and (b) exceeds the liquidus dwell times typically imposed in crystallization experiments. The influence of magmatic superheating on crystal morphology is similar in sense and magnitude to that of subliquidus cooling rate and thus, both factors should be considered when interpreting the thermal history of a volcanic rock containing anhedral olivine.

Keywords

Olivine Crystal growth Superheating Textural analysis Kinetics Crystal nucleation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully thank M. Garcia for discussions and samples, E. Hellebrand, T. Shea, J. Boesenberg, S. Mallick, B. Chilson Parks, A. Charn, and I. Fendley for analytical assistance; B. Welsch, G. Libourel, M. Rutherford, and M. Davis for lively debates; N. Arndt, B. Lange, S. Mollo and anonymous reviewers for thoughtful comments. This work was supported by National Science Foundation (US) awards EAR1321890 and EAR1347887 and is SOEST publication #10803.

Author contributions

EF: Conceptualization, experimental methodology, chemical analysis, geochemical modeling. TL: Experimental investigation, chemical analysis, imaging and image processing methodology. JH: Geochemical modeling, manuscript preparation.

Supplementary material

410_2019_1638_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (52 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 52 kb)
410_2019_1638_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (65 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 64 kb)
410_2019_1638_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (4 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 4049 kb)
410_2019_1638_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (109 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (XLSX 108 kb)
410_2019_1638_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (XLSX 17 kb)

References

  1. Aitken BG, Echeverría LM (1984) Petrology and geochemistry of komatiites and tholeiites from Gorgona Island, Colombia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 86:94–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asimow PD (2001) Calculation of Peridotite Partial Melting from Thermodynamic Models of Minerals and Melts, IV. Adiabatic Decompression and the Composition and Mean Properties of Mid-ocean Ridge BasaltsGoogle Scholar
  3. Berkebile CA, Dowty E (1982) Nucleation in laboratory charges of basaltic composition. Am Mineral 67:886–899Google Scholar
  4. Berndt J, Koepke J, Holtz F (2005) An experimental investigation of the influence of water and oxygen fugacity on differentiation of MORB at 200 MPa. J Petrol 46:135–167.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egh066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burkhard OD, Sharpton VL (1999) Large meteorite impacts and planetary evolution II. Geological Society of America, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  6. Demouchy S, Jacobsen SD, Gaillard F, Stem CR (2006) Rapid magma ascent recorded by water diffusion profiles in mantle olivine. Geology 34:429–432.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G22386.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dingwell DB, Webb SL (1990) Relaxation in silicate melts. Eur J Mineral 2:427–449.  https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2/4/0427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Donaldson CH (1976) An experimental investigation of olivine morphology. Contrib Mineral Petrol 57:187–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Donaldson CH (1979) An experimental investigation of the delay in nucleation of olivine in Mafic Magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:21–32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00375191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Faure F, Trolliard G, Nicollet C, Montel J-M (2003) A developmental model of olivine morphology as a function of the cooling rate and the degree of undercooling. Contrib Mineral Petrol 145:251–263.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-003-0449-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Faure F, Schiano P, Trolliard G et al (2007) Textural evolution of polyhedral olivine experiencing rapid cooling rates. Contrib Mineral Petrol 153:405–416.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-006-0154-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. First E, Hammer JE (2016) Igneous cooling history of olivine-phyric shergottite Yamato 980459 constrained by dynamic crystallization experiments. Meteorit Planet Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1111/maps.12659 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fu X, Chen G, Zu Y et al (2013) Microstructure refinement of melt-grown Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 eutectic composite by a new method: melt superheating treatment. Scr Mater 68:731–734.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2013.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibb FGF (1974) Supercooling and the crystallization of plagioclase from a basaltic magma. Mineral Mag 39:641–653.  https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1974.039.306.02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giordano D, Russell JK, Dingwell DB (2008) Viscosity of magmatic liquids: a model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 271:123–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gualda GAR, Ghiorso MS, Lemons RV, Carley TL (2012) Rhyolite-MELTS: a modified calibration of MELTS optimized for silica-rich, fluid-bearing magmatic systems. J Petrol 53:875–890.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egr080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hammer JE (2009) Application of a textural geospeedometer to the late-stage magmatic history of MIL 03346. Meteorit Planet Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1945-5100.2009.tb00724.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herring C (1951) Some theorems on the free energies of crystal surfaces. Phys Rev 82:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hewins R, Connoly HJ, Lofgren GE, Libourel G (2005) Experimental constraints on alkali condensation in chondrule formation. In: Krot A, Scott E, Reipurth B (eds) Chondrites and the protoplanetary disk. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1183–1188Google Scholar
  20. Hildreth W (1981) Gradients in silicic magma chambers: implications for lithospheric magmatism. J Geophys Res 86:10153–10192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jambon A, Lussiez P, Clocchiatti R et al (1992) Olivine growth rate in a tholeiitic basalt: an experimental study of melt inclusion in plagioclase. Chem Geol 96:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jarosewich E, Nelen JA, Norberg JA (1980) Reference samples for electron microprobe analysis. Geostand Geoanalyt Res 4:43–47.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-908X.1980.tb00273.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kirkpatrick RJ (1975) Crystal growth from the melt: a review. Am Mineral 60:798–814Google Scholar
  24. Langmuir CH, Klein EM, Plank T (1992) Petrological systematics ofmid-ocean ridge basalts: constraints on melt generation beneath ocean ridges. In: Phipps Morgan J, Blackman DK, Sinton JM (eds) Mantle flow and melt generation at mid-ocean ridges. Geophysical monograph, vol 71. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp 183–280Google Scholar
  25. Le Maitre R, Streckeisen A, Zanettin B, Le Bas M, Bonin B, Bateman P (eds) (2002) Igneous rocks: a classification and glossary of terms: recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535581 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lofgren GE, Lanier AB (1992) Dynamic crystallization experiments on the Angra dos Reis achondritic meteorite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 111:455–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lofgren GE, Huss GR, Wasserburg GJ (2006) An experimental study of trace-element partitioning between Ti-Al-clinopyroxene and melt: equilibrium and kinetic effects including sector zoning. Am Mineral 91:1596–1606.  https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2006.2108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mathieu R, Libourel G, Deloule E et al (2011) Na2O solubility in CaO–MgO–SiO2 melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:608–628.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2010.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matzen AK, Baker MB, Beckett JR, Stolper EM (2013) The temperature and pressure dependence of nickel partitioning between olivine and silicate melt. J Petrol 54:2521–2545.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egt055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Matzen AK, Wood BJ, Baker MB, Stolper EM (2017) The roles of pyroxenite and peridotite in the mantle sources of oceanic basalts. Nat Geosci 10:530–535.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2968 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCarthy A, Muntener O (2016) Comb layering monitors decompressing and fractionating hydrous mafic magmas in subvolcanic plumbing systems (Fisher Lake, Sierra Nevada, USA). J Geophys Res EARTH 121:8595–8621.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McKenzie D, Bickle MJ (1988) The volume and composition of melt generated by extension of the lithosphere. J Petrol 29:625–679.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.3.625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mollo S, Hammer JE (2017) Dynamic crystallization in magmas. In: Heinrich W, Abart R (eds) Mineral reaction kinetics; microstructures, textures, chemical and isotopic signatures. European Mineralogical Union Notes in Mineralogy, vol 16, pp 373–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mollo S, Del P, Ventura G et al (2010) Dependence of clinopyroxene composition on cooling rate in basaltic magmas: implications for thermobarometry. Lithos 118:302–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2010.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nash A, Nash P (1985) Ni-Re (Nickel-Rhenium) system. Bull Alloy Phase Diagrams 6:348–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ni H, Keppler H, Walte N et al (2014) In situ observation of crystal growth in a basalt melt and the development of crystal size distribution in igneous rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:1003.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-014-1003-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O’Driscoll B, Donaldson CH, Troll VR et al (2006) An origin for harrisitic and granular olivine in the rum layered suite, NW Scotland: a crystal size distribution study. J Petrol 48:253–270.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egl059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Neill HSC (2005) A method for controlling alkali-metal oxide activities in one-atmosphere experiments and its application to measuring the relative activity coefficients of NaO0.5 in silicate melts. Am Mineral 90:497–501.  https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2005.1792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ozawa A, Tagami T, Garcia MO (2005) Unspiked K-Ar dating of the Honolulu rejuvenated and Ko’olau shield volcanism on O’ahu, Hawai’i. Earth Planet Sci Lett 232:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.01.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pupier E, Duchene S, Toplis MJ (2008) Experimental quantification of plagioclase crystal size distribution during cooling of a basaltic liquid. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155:555–570.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-007-0258-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Richet P, Leclerc F, Benoist L (1993) Melting of Forsterite and spinel, with implications for the glass transition of Mg2SiO4 liquid. Geophys Res Lett 20:1675–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Robie R, Hemingway B, Fisher J (1978) Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances at 298.15 K and 1 bar pressure and at higher temperatures. US Geol Surv Bull 1452:456.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cm201964r CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roskosz M, Toplis MJ, Besson P, Richet P (2005) Nucleation mechanisms: a crystal-chemical investigation of phases forming in highly supercooled aluminosilicate liquids. J Non Cryst Solids 351:1266–1282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2005.02.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ruprecht P, Plank T (2013) Feeding andesitic eruptions with a high-speed connection from the mantle. Nature 500:68–72.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12342 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shea T, Lynn KJ, Garcia MO (2015) Cracking the olivine zoning code: distinguishing between crystal growth and diffusion. Geology 43:935–938.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G37082.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sobolev AV, Hofmann AW, Kuzmin DV et al (2007) The amount of recycled crust in sources of mantle—derived melts. Science 316:412–417.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stebbins JF, Carmichael ISE (1984) The heat of fusion of fayalite. Am Mineral 69:292–297Google Scholar
  48. Sunagawa I (1987) Morphology of minerals. In: Sunagawa I (ed) Morphology of crystals. Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, pp 511–587Google Scholar
  49. Sunagawa I (1992) In situ investigation of nucleation, growth, and dissolution of silicate crystals at high temperatuers. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 20:113–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tsuchiyama A (1983) Crystallization kinetics in the system CaMgSi2O6–CaAl2Si2O8: the delay in nucleation of diopside and anorthite. Am Mineral 68:687–698Google Scholar
  51. Turnbull D, Cohen MH (1960) Crystallization kinetics and glass formation. In: Mackenzie SD (ed) Modern aspects of the vitreous state. Butterworths, London, pp 35–62Google Scholar
  52. Underwood EE (1968) Surface area and length in volume. In: DeHoff RT, Rhines F (eds) Quantitative microscopy. Mcgraw-Hill, New York, pp 78–127Google Scholar
  53. Vetere F, Iezzi G, Behrens H et al (2013) Intrinsic solidification behaviour of basaltic to rhyolitic melts: a cooling rate experimental study. Chem Geol 354:233–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wagner TP, Grove TL (1998) Melt/Harzburgite reaction in the Petrogenesis of theoleiitic magma from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 131:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wagstaff FE (1968) Crystallization kinetics of internally nucleated vitreous silica. J Am Ceram Soc 51:449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Walker D, Powell M, Lofgren G, Hays J (1978) Dynamic crystallization of a eucrite basalt. Lunar Planet Sci IX.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Waters LE, Andrews BJ, Lange RA (2015) rapid crystallization of plagioclase phenocrysts in silicic melts during fluid-saturated ascent: phase equilibrium and decompression experiments. J Petrol 56:981–1006.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egv025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Welsch B, Faure F, Famin V et al (2013) Dendritic crystallization: a single process for all the textures of olivine in basalts? J Petrol 54:539–574.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egs077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zieg MJ, Marsh BD (2005) The sudbury igneous complex: viscous emulsion differentiation of a superheated impact melt sheet. Geol Soc Am Bull 117:1427–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of Hawai‘i at MānoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary SciencesBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Planetary ScienceUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations