Geochemistry of Eocene-Early Oligocene low-temperature crustal melts from Greater Himalayan Sequence (Nepal): a nanogranitoid perspective

  • Omar BartoliEmail author
  • Antonio Acosta-Vigil
  • Bernardo Cesare
  • Laurent Remusat
  • Adriana Gonzalez-Cano
  • Markus Wälle
  • Lucie Tajčmanová
  • Antonio Langone
Original Paper


Despite melt inclusions in migmatites and granulites provide a wealth of information on crustal anatexis in different geological scenarios, a complete compositional study (including trace elements and H2O) is yet to be made for the Himalayan rocks. In this contribution, we focus on nanogranitoids occurring in peritectic garnet of migmatites from Kali Gandaki valley in central Nepal (Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS). The microstructural position of the nanogranitoids proves that these melts were produced at 650–720 °C and 1.0–1.1 GPa, during the Eohimalayan prograde metamorphism (41–36 Ma) associated with crustal thickening. Nanogranitoid compositions (mostly granodiorites, tonalities and trondhjemites) resemble those of experimental melts produced during H2O-present melting of meta-sedimentary rocks. They have variable H2O concentrations (6.5–14.4 wt%), which are similar to the expected minimum and maximum values for crustal melts produced at the inferred P–T conditions. These compositional signatures suggest that melt formation occurred in the proximity of the H2O-saturated solidus, in a rock-buffered system. The low-to-very low contents of Zr (3–8 ppm), Th (0.1–1.2 ppm) and LREE (4–11 ppm) along with the weak-to-moderate positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.2–3.3), the high B concentrations (200–3400 ppm) and the high U/Th ratio (up to 21) point to the lack of equilibration between melt and accessory minerals and are consistent with melting of plagioclase at low temperature. Kali Gandaki nanogranitoids record the beginning of melting in a H2O-present system that, in other GHS localities, may have produced voluminous crustal melts. We demonstrate that compositional comparison with nanogranitoids may be useful to reconstruct the petrogenesis of Eohimalayan granitoids.


Nanogranitoids Greater Himalayan Sequence Low-T crustal melts H2O-present melting 



This research benefitted from funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University, Research (Progetto SIR RBSI14Y7PF), from Padova University (Grant BART_SID19_01) and from Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia (Grant for a research stay abroad) to OB; from the CARIPARO (Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo) project MAKEARTH to BC. The National NanoSIMS facility at the MNHN was established by funds from the CNRS, Région Ile de France, Ministère délégué à l’Enseignement supérieur et à la Recherche, and the MNHN. Remi Duhamel is thanked for his support during NanoSIMS analyses. We would like to thank Ed Sawyer and Roberto Weinberg for their detailed and constructive reviews, which improved the manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary file1 (XLSX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar Bartoli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Acosta-Vigil
    • 2
  • Bernardo Cesare
    • 1
  • Laurent Remusat
    • 3
  • Adriana Gonzalez-Cano
    • 3
  • Markus Wälle
    • 4
  • Lucie Tajčmanová
    • 5
  • Antonio Langone
    • 6
  1. 1.Dipartimento di GeoscienzeUniversità degli Studi di PadovaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la TierraCSIC-Universidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Institut de Minératogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, IMPMCSorbonne Université, UMR CNRS 7590, lRDParisFrance
  4. 4.REAIT, CRC and CFI Services (CCCS)Memorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  5. 5.Institute of Earth SciencesHeidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany
  6. 6.Istituto di Geoscienze e GeorisorseC.N.R. University of PaviaPaviaItaly

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