Geochemical and petrological diversity of mafic magmas from Mount St. Helens

  • Maren WankeEmail author
  • Michael A. Clynne
  • Albrecht von Quadt
  • Torsten W. Vennemann
  • Olivier Bachmann
Original Paper


Quaternary eruptive products in the Cascade arc include a variety of different basalt types. At Mount St. Helens (MSH), the most active volcano in the Cascades throughout the last 35 ka, three different mafic endmembers erupted at the end of the Castle Creek period (1900–1700 years B.P.): (1) high-field strength element (HFSE)-rich basalt enriched in K, Ti, P, and incompatible trace elements; (2) low-K olivine tholeiite (LKOT) with lower amounts of incompatible trace elements; and (3) calc-alkaline (arc-type) basaltic andesite with a typical subduction signature, i.e., enrichment in fluid-mobile large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to immobile high-field strength elements (HFSE). Each type has compositions projecting backwards to more primitive endmembers in the Cascades. Single units encompassing basaltic-to-basaltic andesitic compositions with intermediate trace-element abundances form two almost continuous trends towards basaltic andesite. These trends are interpreted to result from assimilation of pre-existing, more evolved, calc-alkaline material (and in one case mixing of different mafic magma types) during migration of the magmas through the crust. Most of the erupted basalts are porphyritic (10–30%) with an assemblage dominated by olivine and plagioclase and show disequilibrium textures preventing detailed reconstruction of mantle melting processes. Although typical hydrous arc basalt produced by flux melting in the mantle is absent in the eruptive products of MSH, arc-type basaltic andesite suggests its presence at depth. LKOT magmas are interpreted as decompression melts from the upper mantle, whereas HFSE-rich basalts are likely derived from the water-poor periphery of the main flux melting regime, potentially tapping a trace-element-enriched source. Primitive spinel compositions and whole-rock trace-element variations indicate at least two distinct, relatively fertile lherzolite sources for these two basalt types. Weak crustal zones associated with an old fracture system beneath MSH likely provide conduits for fast and isolated ascent of distinct batches of magma, bypassing the lower crustal mush zone. The eruption of the basalts through the upper crustal magma system and main edifice is consistent with an offset plumbing system suggested by geophysical data.


Mount St. Helens Basalt Trace elements Chromian spinel Olivine Arc magmatism 



We thank Lydia Zehnder, Marcel Guillong and Markus Waelle for laboratory assistance during XRF and laser analyses. We appreciate constructive comments from Ben Ellis, Jon Blundy, Sue DeBari, Bill Leeman, Othmar Müntener, and an anonymous reviewer on earlier versions of this manuscript that helped clarify our ideas. This project has been supported by Swiss National Science Foundation grant 200021_146268. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, Institute of Geochemistry and PetrologyETH ZürichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.U.S. Geological Survey, Volcano Science CenterMenlo ParkUSA
  3. 3.Institut des Dynamiques de la Surface TerrestreUniversité de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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