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Near-solidus melts of MORB + 4 wt% H2O at 0.8–2.8 GPa applied to issues of subduction magmatism and continent formation

  • T. W. Sisson
  • P. B. Kelemen
Original Paper
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Experiments on MORB + 4 wt% H2O at 0.8–2.8 GPa and 700–950 °C (Liu in High pressure phase equilibria involving the amphibolite–eclogite transformation. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1997; Liu et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 143:161–171, 1996) were reexamined for their major and trace element melt compositions and melting relations. Degree of melting diminishes at greater pressures, with corresponding evolution of melt from andesitic at the lowest pressures and hottest temperatures to high-silica rhyolitic at the greatest pressure and coolest temperature. Quartz contributes greatly to the production of near-solidus melts of basaltic eclogite, with the result that melt productivity falls markedly following quartz exhaustion. This limits the extent of melting attainable in the basaltic eclogite portions of sub-arc subducting plates to no more than ~ 2 × the modal wt% quartz in the mafic eclogite protolith. Synthesized residual mineral assemblages lack an epidote-series mineral at temperatures > 750 °C, and as a result, melts from the rutile eclogite and rutile-amphibole eclogite facies have elevated concentrations of light rare earth elements, U, Th, have elevated Ba, K, and Sr, high Sr/Y, and are strongly depleted in Nb, Y, and the heavy rare earth elements. Models of eclogite partial melt reacting with peridotite of the mantle wedge reproduce major and trace element characteristics of parental arc magmas so long as the proportions of infiltrating melt to peridotite are relatively high, consistent with channelized ascent. Melt mass is estimated to increase roughly three- to ten-fold, consistent with H2O concentrations of 3–7 wt% in the magmas produced by reaction. Partial melts of subducting basaltic eclogite are predicted to have positive Sr concentration anomalies, relative to Ce and Nd, that persist through melt-peridotite reactions. Primitive arc magmas commonly have positive Sr anomalies, whereas such anomalies are smaller in estimates of the bulk continental crust. Overall, Sr anomalies diminish passing from primitive to more evolved arc volcanic rocks, consistent with extensive mineral-melt differentiation (crystallization, partial remelting) involving plagioclase. On the order of 50 wt% differentiation would be necessary to eliminate Sr positive anomalies, based on geochemical variations in the Cascade and western Aleutian magmatic arcs. Loss to the mantle of cumulates and restites with high Sr anomalies, in abundances broadly equal to the mass of the preserved crust, would be required to form the continents via processes similar to present-day subduction magmatism.

Keywords

Subduction magmatism Eclogite Partial melting Continental crust Experimental petrology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Steve Bohlen and Gary Ernst for their foresight in retaining Jun Liu’s run products, starting material, and lab books at the USGS. W. Ben Hankins performed the new 2.6 and 2.8 GPa runs. Jorge Vazquez, Nobu Shimizu, and Karen Hanghøj assisted with ion-microprobe trace element analyses. Robert Oscarson and Leslie Hayden maintained the USGS Menlo Park electron-microprobe facility. Matt Loewen, Gene Yogodzinski, and Dawnika Blatter provided helpful review comments, and Tim Grove and Mike Clynne provided editorial guidance. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (XLS 114 KB)
410_2018_1494_MOESM2_ESM.docx (31 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 31 KB)

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© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA
  2. 2.Lamont-Doherty Earth ObservatoryColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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