, Volume 196, Issue 5, pp 591–599 | Cite as

Changes in the Burden of Comorbidities in Patients with COPD and Asthma–COPD Overlap According to the GOLD 2017 Recommendations

  • András BikovEmail author
  • Alpár Horváth
  • Gábor Tomisa
  • Liza Bártfai
  • Zoltán Bártfai



Comorbidities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect quality of life and increase mortality. Asthma–COPD overlap (ACO) may express a different profile of comorbidities compared to COPD alone. It is unclear how recent changes in GOLD recommendations affect the profile of comorbidities in COPD and ACO.


Eight hundred and thirty-four patients with COPD were recruited from 67 Hungarian secondary care outpatient clinics, 469 of them had ACO. Comorbidities were defined by respiratory specialists based on medical history, patient report, and medications. COPD grades were defined according to the old 2016 and the new 2017 GOLD document. Comorbidities were compared along COPD ABCD groups determined by the old and new GOLD.


66 and 72% of the COPD patients in groups C and D (GOLD 2016) were recategorized to groups A and B (GOLD 2017), respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of disorders along the 2016 GOLD categories except for osteoporosis in ACO (p = 0.01). When the patients were categorized according to the 2017 GOLD criteria, the prevalence of osteoporosis (p = 0.01) was different among the four groups in all COPD patients. Subgroup analysis of non-ACO COPD patients revealed inter-group differences for cardiac arrhythmia (p < 0.01). No alteration was seen in the prevalence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, or the total number of comorbidities.


A significant number of patients are recategorized according to the GOLD 2017 criteria. This change only marginally affects the profile of comorbidities; still this needs to be considered when assessing the patients in daily practice.


Asthma Asthma–COPD overlap Comorbidities COPD 



The study has been funded by the Chiesi Hungary Ltd. This publication was supported by the Janos Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences to András Bikov. The funders have no role in statistical analysis or manuscript preparation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

András Bikov received honoraria for data analysis. Zoltán Bártfai have received honoraria for presentation from Chiesi Hungary Ltd. Alpár Horváth and Gábor Tomisa are full time employees of Chiesi Hungary Ltd. The authors report no further conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PulmonologySemmelweis UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Chiesi Hungary Ltd.BudapestHungary
  3. 3.Department of PulmonologyUniversity of DebrecenDebrecenHungary
  4. 4.Sopron Health CentreSopronHungary
  5. 5.Pereszteg-Pinnye General Practitioner PraxisPeresztegHungary

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