Prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease in a psychiatric inpatient sample: results of the Metabolism in Psychiatry (MiP) Study

  • Barbara B. BartonEmail author
  • Anja Zagler
  • Katharina Engl
  • Leonie Rihs
  • Richard Musil
Original Paper


The information on prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk (CVR) and on sociodemographic variables available in patients with psychiatric diseases about to be treated with weight gain-associated medication (e.g., clozapine, mirtazapine, quetiapine) is limited. In a naturalistic study, psychiatric inpatients (age: 18–75) of all F diagnoses according to ICD-10, who were about to be treated with weight gain-associated medication, were included. Demographic variables were assessed as well as biological parameters to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI), MetS, diabetes and CVR. A total of 163 inpatients were included (60.1% male; mean age: 39.8 (± 15.1, 18–75 years). The three most common disorders were depression (46.0%), bipolar disorder (20.9%) and drug addiction (20.2%). The three most common pharmacotherapeutic agents prescribed were quetiapine (29.4%), mirtazapine (20.9%) and risperidone (12.9%). Of the included inpatients 30.1% were overweight, 17.2% obese, and 26.9% and 22.4% fulfilled the criteria for a MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP ATP III), respectively, 3.8% had (pre)diabetes and 8.3% had a moderate and 1.9% a high CVR according to the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score. Detailed information is reported on all assessed parameters as well as on subgroup analyses concerning sociodemographic variables. The results suggest that psychiatric patients suffer from multiple metabolic disturbances in comparison to the general population. Monitoring weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and cholesterol regularly is, therefore, highly relevant.


Body mass index Weight gain Metabolic syndrome Prevalence Prospective study Depression 



This work was performed in partial fulfillment of the M.D. thesis requirements of the LMU Medicine faculty. We would like to thank all patients who participated in this study and our students Ann-Sophie Störmann, Gianna Heinrichs and Laura Drews for helping in the data acquisition phase. Editing of language was assisted by Thelma Coutts.

Author contributions

Study concept and design: RM. Acquisition of data: AZ, KE, LR. BB. Analysis and interpretation of data: BB, AZ, RM. Drafting the manuscript: BB, AZ. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: RM. Statistical analysis: BB, AZ.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that over the past three years author Dr. R. Musil has received research support from Janssen-Cilag, Speaker Honoraria from Otsuka and has been on the advisory board of Roche Pharmaceuticals. There are no other financial interests in relation to this article.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity Hospital , LMU Munich, GermanyMunichGermany

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