Antisaccade and prosaccade eye movements in individuals clinically at risk for psychosis: comparison with first-episode schizophrenia and prediction of conversion
- 41 Downloads
Saccadic eye movements are well-described markers of cerebral function and have been widely studied in schizophrenia spectrum populations. However, less is known about saccades in individuals clinically at risk for schizophrenia. Therefore, we studied individuals in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (N = 160), patients in their first episode of schizophrenia (N = 32) and healthy controls (N = 75). N = 88 ARMS participants showed an early at-risk mental state (E-ARMS), defined by cognitive-perceptive basic symptoms (COPER) or a combination of risk and loss of function, whereas N = 72 were in a late at-risk mental state (L-ARMS), defined by attenuated psychotic symptoms or brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms. We examined prosaccades, reflecting overt attentional shifts, and antisaccades, measuring inhibitory control, as well as their relationship as an indicator of the interplay of bottom–up and top–down influences. L-ARMS but not E-ARMS participants had increased antisaccade latencies compared to controls. First-episode patients had higher antisaccade error rates compared to E-ARMS participants and controls, and increased latencies compared to all other groups. Prosaccade latencies did not differ between groups. We observed the expected negative correlation between prosaccade latency and antisaccade error rate, indicating that individuals with shorter prosaccade latencies made more antisaccade errors. The magnitude of the association did not differ between groups. No saccadic measure predicted conversion to psychosis within 2 years. These findings confirm the existence of antisaccade impairments in patients with schizophrenia and provide evidence that volitional response generation in the antisaccade task may be affected even before onset of clinically overt psychosis.
KeywordsAntisaccade Prosaccade Clinical high risk Prognostic biomarkers
This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) (Grant numbers BMBF 01GI 9934, 01GI 0234, 01GI9932, 01GI0232, 01GI0532). The funding source had no further role in the study design; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; the writing of the report; and the decision to submit the paper for publication.
MW, WW, WM, SR and JK conceived the study and obtained funding. MW designed the study and wrote the protocol. IF, WW, and ADB were responsible for data recording and management. LK and UE performed the analysis and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors have contributed to data acquisition and to revising the manuscript and have approved the final manuscript. Luca Kleineidam (LK), Ingo Frommann (IF), Stephan Ruhrmann (SR), Joachim Klosterkötter (JK), Anke Brockhaus-Dumke (ABD) Wolfgang Wölwer (WW), Wolfgang Gaebel (WG), Wolfgang Maier (WM), Michael Wagner (MW), Ulrich Ettinger (UE).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.
- 10.Ettinger U, Meyhöfer I, Steffens M et al (2014) Genetics, cognition, and neurobiology of schizotypal personality: A review of the overlap with schizophrenia. Frontiers Media SAGoogle Scholar
- 19.Frommann I, Pukrop R, Brinkmeyer J et al (2011) Neuropsychological profiles in different at-risk states of psychosis: executive control impairment in the early—and additional memory dysfunction in the late—prodromal state. Schizophr Bull 37:861–873. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbp155 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW (1997) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version (SCID-CV)Google Scholar
- 25.American Psychiatric Association (2000) DSM-IVGoogle Scholar
- 26.Möller HJ, Riedel M, Jäger M et al (2008) Short-term treatment with risperidone or haloperidol in first-episode schizophrenia: 8-week results of a randomized controlled trial within the German research network on Schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 11(7):985–997. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1461145708008791 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Harris MSH, Reilly JL, Thase ME et al (2009) Response suppression deficits in treatment-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder and psychotic major depression. Psychiatry Res 170:150–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.10.031 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 38.Fusar-Poli P, Bonoldi I, Yung AR et al (2012) Predicting psychosis: meta-analysis of transition outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(3):220–229. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1472 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar