Advertisement

Cannabis and mental illness: a review

  • Darby J. E. Lowe
  • Julia D. Sasiadek
  • Alexandria S. Coles
  • Tony P. GeorgeEmail author
Invited Review

Abstract

With the increasing push to legalize cannabis in Western nations, there is a need to gage the potential impact of this policy change on vulnerable populations, such as those with mental illness, including schizophrenia, mood, and anxiety disorders. This is particularly important as there are strong motives in these individuals to seek short-term reward (e.g., “getting high”). Nonetheless, data to support the beneficial effects of cannabis use in psychiatric populations are limited, and potential harms in patients with psychotic and mood disorders have been increasingly documented. This article reviews the effects of cannabis in people with mental illness. Then, we provide a reconciliation of the addiction vulnerability and allostatic hypotheses to explain co-morbidity addiction in mentally ill cannabis users, as well as to further aid in developing a rational framework for the assessment and treatment of problematic cannabis use in these patients.

Keywords

Cannabis Addiction Therapeutics Harms Schizophrenia Mood disorders Anxiety disorders Post-traumatic stress disorder Legalization 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Ms. Lowe, Ms. Coles, and Ms. Sasiadek have no conflicts of interest in relation to this manuscript. Dr. George has been a consultant to NIH and the Canadian Centre for Substance Abuse, and has grant support from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (MOP-115145) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R21-DA-043949).

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawal A, Pergadia ML, Lynskey MT (2008) Is there evidence for symptoms of cannabis withdrawal in the national epidemiologic survey of alcohol and related conditions? Am J Addict 17:199–208Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andréasson S, Engström A, Allebeck P, Rydberg U (1987) Cannabis and schizophrenia a longitudinal study of swedish conscripts. Lancet 330:1483–1486Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    APA (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. APA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baggio S, N’goran AA, Deline S, Studer J, Dupuis M, Henchoz Y, Mohler-Kuo M, Daeppen JB, Gmel G (2014) Patterns of cannabis use and prospective associations with health issues among young males. Addiction 109:937–945Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bahorik AL, Leibowitz A, Sterling SA, Travis A, Weisner C, Satre DD (2017) Patterns of marijuana use among psychiatry patients with depression and its impact on recovery. J Affect Disord 213:168–171Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barrus DG, Capogrossi KL, Cates SC, Gourdet CK, Peiper NC, Novak SP, Lefever TW, Wiley JL (2016) Tasty thc: promises and challenges of cannabis edibles. Methods report. RTI Press, Research TriangleGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RHC, Chagas MHN, De Oliveira DCG, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schröder N, Nardi AE (2011) Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naive social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1219Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boden MT, Babson KA, Vujanovic AA, Short NA, Bonn-Miller MO (2013) Posttraumatic stress disorder and cannabis use characteristics among military veterans with cannabis dependence. Am J Addict 22:277–284Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boggs DL, Surti T, Gupta A, Gupta S, Niciu M, Pittman B, Martin AMS, Thurnauer H, Davies A, D’Souza DC (2018) The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on cognition and symptoms in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia a randomized placebo controlled trial. Psychopharmacology 235:1923–1932Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonn-Miller MO, Babson KA, Vandrey R (2014) Using cannabis to help you sleep: Heightened frequency of medical cannabis use among those with ptsd. Drug Alcohol Depend 136:162–165Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bonn-Miller MO, Boden MT, Bucossi MM, Babson KA (2014) Self-reported cannabis use characteristics, patterns and helpfulness among medical cannabis users. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 40:23–30Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bossong MG, Jansma JM, van Hell HH, Jager G, Oudman E, Saliasi E, Kahn RS, Ramsey NF (2012) Effects of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human working memory function. Biol Psychiatry 71:693–699Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown AS, Lau FS (2016) A review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia. In: Pletnikov MV, Waddington JL (eds) Modeling the psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia: from molecules to behavior, vol 359. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 1555–1564Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buckner JD, Schmidt NB, Lang AR, Small JW, Schlauch RC, Lewinsohn PM (2008) Specificity of social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol and cannabis dependence. J Psychiatr Res 42:230–239Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buckner JD, Zvolensky MJ, Ecker AH, Jeffries ER (2016) Cannabis craving in response to laboratory-induced social stress among racially diverse cannabis users: the impact of social anxiety disorder. J Psychopharmacol 30:363–369Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Budney AJ, Hughes JR, Moore BA, Vandrey R (2004) Review of the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 161:1967–1977Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bujarski SJ, Galang JN, Short NA, Trafton JA, Gifford EV, Kimerling R, Vujanovic AA, McKee LG, Bonn-Miller MO (2016) Cannabis use disorder treatment barriers and facilitators among veterans with ptsd. Psychol Addict Behav 30:73Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cameron C, Watson D, Robinson J (2014) Use of a synthetic cannabinoid in a correctional population for posttraumatic stress disorder-related insomnia and nightmares, chronic pain, harm reduction, and other indications: a retrospective evaluation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 34:559Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Government of Canada (2017) Canadian cannabis survey 2017—summary. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/publications/drugs-health-products/canadian-cannabissurvey-2017-summary.html. Accessed 10 June 2018
  20. 20.
    Carey CE, Agrawal A, Bucholz KK, Hartz SM, Lynskey MT, Nelson EC, Bierut LJ, Bogdan R (2016) Associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement. Front Genet 7:149Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chambers RA, Krystal JH, Self DW (2001) A neurobiological basis for substance abuse comorbidity in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 50:71–83Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Charilaou P, Agnihotri K, Garcia P, Badheka A, Frenia D, Yegneswaran B (2017) Trends of cannabis use disorder in the inpatient: 2002 to 2011. Am J Med 130:678.e677–687.e677Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Compton WM, Han B, Jones CM, Blanco C, Hughes A (2016) Marijuana use and use disorders in adults in the USA, 2002–14: analysis of annual cross-sectional surveys. Lancet Psychiatry 3:954–964Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Conway KP, Swendsen J, Husky MM, He J-P, Merikangas KR (2016) Association of lifetime mental disorders and subsequent alcohol and illicit drug use: results from the national comorbidity survey–adolescent supplement. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 55:280–288Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Copeland J, Rooke S, Swift W (2013) Changes in cannabis use among young people: impact on mental health. Curr Opin Psychiatry 26:325–329Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cougle JR, Bonn-Miller MO, Vujanovic AA, Zvolensky MJ, Hawkins KA (2011) Posttraumatic stress disorder and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample. Psychol Addict Behav 25:554Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cougle JR, Hakes JK, Macatee RJ, Chavarria J, Zvolensky MJ (2015) Quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among regular users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis: an analysis of the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions (nesarc). J Psychiatr Res 66:135–141Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Crean RD, Crane NA, Mason BJ (2011) An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions. J Addict Med 5:1Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crippa JA, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, Zuardi AW (2018) Translational investigation of the therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (cbd): toward a new age. Front Immunol.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Curran H, Morgan C (2014) Desired and undesired effects of cannabis on the human mind and psychological well-being. Handbook of cannabis. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 647–660Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Curran HV, Freeman TP, Mokrysz C, Lewis DA, Morgan CJ, Parsons LH (2016) Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 17:293Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D’Souza DC, Perry E, MacDougall L, Ammerman Y, Cooper T, Braley G, Gueorguieva R, Krystal JH (2004) The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: Implications for psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1558Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    D’Souza DC, Abi-Saab WM, Madonick S, Forselius-Bielen K, Doersch A, Braley G, Gueorguieva R, Cooper TB, Krystal JH (2005) Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction. Biol Psychiatry 57:594–608Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Danielsson A-K, Lundin A, Agardh E, Allebeck P, Forsell Y (2016) Cannabis use, depression and anxiety: a 3-year prospective population-based study. J Affect Disord 193:103–108Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Davis GP, Compton MT, Wang S, Levin FR, Blanco C (2013) Association between cannabis use, psychosis, and schizotypal personality disorder: findings from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Schizophr Res 151:197–202Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Degenhardt L, Coffey C, Romaniuk H, Swift W, Carlin JB, Hall WD, Patton GC (2013) The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood. Addiction 108:124–133Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M (2001) The relationship between cannabis use, depression and anxiety among australian adults: findings from the national survey of mental health and well-being. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 36:219–227Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Di Forti M, Marconi A, Carra E, Fraietta S, Trotta A, Bonomo M, Bianconi F, Gardner-Sood P, O’Connor J, Russo M (2015) Proportion of patients in south london with first-episode psychosis attributable to use of high potency cannabis: a case-control study. Lancet Psychiatry 2:233–238Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Di Forti M, Morgan C, Dazzan P, Pariante C, Mondelli V, Marques TR, Handley R, Luzi S, Russo M, Paparelli A (2009) High-potency cannabis and the risk of psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 195:488–491Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Di Forti M, Sallis H, Allegri F, Trotta A, Ferraro L, Stilo SA, Marconi A, La Cascia C, Reis Marques T, Pariante C (2013) Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. Schizophr Bull 40:1509–1517Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dorard G, Berthoz S, Phan O, Corcos M, Bungener C (2008) Affect dysregulation in cannabis abusers. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:274–282Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Duperrouzel J, Hawes SW, Lopez-Quintero C, Pacheco-Colón I, Comer J, Gonzalez R (2018) The association between adolescent cannabis use and anxiety: a parallel process analysis. Addict Behav 78:107–113Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dworkin ER, Kaysen D, Bedard-Gilligan M, Rhew IC, Lee CM (2017) Daily-level associations between ptsd and cannabis use among young sexual minority women. Addict Behav 74:118–121Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Earleywine M, Barnwell SS (2007) Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize. Harm Reduct J 4:11Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Earleywine M, Bolles JR (2014) Marijuana, expectancies, and post-traumatic stress symptoms: a preliminary investigation. J Psychoact Drugs 46:171–177Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Earleywine M, Van Dam NT (2010) Case studies in cannabis vaporization. Addict Res Theory 18:243–249Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    ElSohly MA (2014) Potency monitoring program quarterly report no. 123—reporting period: 09/16/2013–12/15/2013. In: University of Missippi, National Center for Natural Products Research, Oxford, MSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    ElSohly MA, Mehmedic Z, Foster S, Gon C, Chandra S, Church JC (2016) Changes in cannabis potency over the last 2 decades (1995–2014): Analysis of current data in the united states. Biol Psychiatry 79:613–619Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ersche KD, Williams GB, Robbins TW, Bullmore ET (2013) Meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence and neuroimaging of addiction vulnerability and resilience. Curr Opin Neurobiol 23:615–624Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Feingold D, Weiser M, Rehm J, Lev-Ran S (2016) The association between cannabis use and anxiety disorders: results from a population-based representative sample. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 26:493–505Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Feingold D, Weiser M, Rehm J, Lev-Ran S (2015) The association between cannabis use and mood disorders: a longitudinal study. J Affect Disord 172:211–218Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ (2006) Cannabis use and other illicit drug use: testing the cannabis gateway hypothesis. Addiction 101:556–569Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Flórez-Salamanca L, Secades-Villa R, Budney AJ, García-Rodríguez O, Wang S, Blanco C (2013) Probability and predictors of cannabis use disorders relapse: results of the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (nesarc). Drug Alcohol Depend 132:127–133Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Foti DJ, Kotov R, Guey LT, Bromet EJ (2010) Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization. Am J Psychiatry 167:987–993Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frank B, Serpell M, Hughes J, Matthews J, Kapur D (2008) Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study. BMJ 336:199–201Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fraser GA (2009) The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd). CNS Neurosci Ther 15:84–88Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gage SH, Hickman M, Heron J, Munafò MR, Lewis G, Macleod J, Zammit S (2015) Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with depression and anxiety at age 18: findings from the avon longitudinal study of parents and children. PLoS One 10:e0122896Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Galvez-Buccollini JA, Proal AC, Tomaselli V, Trachtenberg M, Coconcea C, Chun J, Manschreck T, Fleming J, Delisi LE (2012) Association between age at onset of psychosis and age at onset of cannabis use in non-affective psychosis. Schizophr Res 139:157–160Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    George TP, Hill KP, Vaccarino FJ (2018) Cannabis legalization and psychiatric disorders: Caveat “hemp-tor”. Can J Psychiatry 63:447–450Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gieringer D, St. Laurent J, Goodrich S (2004) Cannabis vaporizer combines efficient delivery of thc with effective suppression of pyrolytic compounds. J Cannabis Ther 4:7–27Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Giordano GN, Ohlsson H, Sundquist K, Sundquist J, Kendler K (2015) The association between cannabis abuse and subsequent schizophrenia: a swedish national co-relative control study. Psychol Med 45:407–414Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Grant S, Pedersen ER, Neighbors C (2016) Associations of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with marijuana and synthetic cannabis use among young adult us veterans: a pilot investigation. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 77:509–514Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Green B, Kavanagh D, Young R (2003) Being stoned: a review of self-reported cannabis effects. Drug Alcohol Rev 22:453–460Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Greer GR, Grob CS, Halberstadt AL (2014) Ptsd symptom reports of patients evaluated for the new mexico medical cannabis program. J Psychoact Drugs 46:73–77Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Guttmannova K, Kosterman R, White HR, Bailey JA, Lee JO, Epstein M, Jones TM, Hawkins JD (2017) The association between regular marijuana use and adult mental health outcomes. Drug Alcohol Depend 179:109–116Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hall W, Weier M (2015) Assessing the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the USA. Clin Pharmacol Ther 97:607–615Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hasin DS, Kerridge BT, Saha TD, Huang B, Pickering R, Smith SM, Jung J, Zhang H, Grant BF (2016) Prevalence and correlates of dsm-5 cannabis use disorder, 2012–2013: findings from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions–iii. Am J Psychiatry 173:588–599Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hayatbakhsh MR, Najman JM, Jamrozik K, Mamun AA, Alati R, Bor W (2007) Cannabis and anxiety and depression in young adults: a large prospective study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:408–417Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Helle S, Ringen PA, Melle I, Larsen T-K, Gjestad R, Johnsen E, Lagerberg TV, Andreassen OA, Kroken RA, Joa I (2016) Cannabis use is associated with 3 years earlier onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a naturalistic, multi-site sample (n = 1119). Schizophr Res 170:217–221Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hill KP (2015) Marijuana: the unbiased truth about the world’s most popular weed. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hill KP (2015) Medical marijuana for treatment of chronic pain and other medical and psychiatric problems: a clinical review. JAMA 313:2474–2483Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hjorthøj C, Østergaard MLD, Benros ME, Toftdahl NG, Erlangsen A, Andersen JT, Nordentoft M (2015) Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression: a nationwide, prospective, register-based study. Lancet Psychiatry 2:801–808Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hodgson K, Almasy L, Knowles EE, Kent JW, Curran JE, Dyer TD, Göring HH, Olvera RL, Woolsey MD, Duggirala R (2017) The genetic basis of the comorbidity between cannabis use and major depression. Addiction 112:113–123Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, Coffey C, Patton GC, Tait R, Smart D, Letcher P, Silins E, Hutchinson DM (2012) Cannabis and depression: an integrative data analysis of four australasian cohorts. Drug Alcohol Depend 126:369–378Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Iseger TA, Bossong MG (2015) A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophr Res 162:153–161Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jetly R, Heber A, Fraser G, Boisvert D (2015) The efficacy of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in the treatment of ptsd-associated nightmares: a preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 51:585–588Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Johns A (2001) Psychiatric effects of cannabis. Br J Psychiatry 178:116–122Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Johnson MJ, Pierce JD, Mavandadi S, Klaus J, Defelice D, Ingram E, Oslin DW (2016) Mental health symptom severity in cannabis using and non-using veterans with probable ptsd. J Affect Disord 190:439–442Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kelley ME, Wan CR, Broussard B, Crisafio A, Cristofaro S, Johnson S, Reed TA, Amar P, Kaslow NJ, Walker EF (2016) Marijuana use in the immediate 5-year premorbid period is associated with increased risk of onset of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Schizophr Res 171:62–67Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kessler RC (2004) The epidemiology of dual diagnosis. Biol Psychiatry 56:730–737Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kevorkian S, Bonn-Miller MO, Belendiuk K, Carney DM, Roberson-Nay R, Berenz EC (2015) Associations among trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, cannabis use, and cannabis use disorder in a nationally representative epidemiologic sample. Psychol Addict Behav 29:633Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Khantzian EJ (2012) Reflections on treating addictive disorders: a psychodynamic perspective. Am J Addict 21:274–279Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Khantzian EJ (1997) The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: a reconsideration and recent applications. Harv Rev Psychiatry 4:231–244Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kim S-W, Dodd S, Berk L, Kulkarni J, de Castella A, Fitzgerald PB, Kim J-M, Yoon J-S, Berk M (2015) Impact of cannabis use on long-term remission in bipolar i and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatry Investig 12:349–355Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Koob GF, Le Moal M (2001) Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology 24:97Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Koob GF, Volkow ND (2016) Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 3:760–773Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Koskinen J, Löhönen J, Koponen H, Isohanni M, Miettunen J (2009) Rate of cannabis use disorders in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 36:1115–1130Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Large M, Sharma S, Compton MT, Slade T, Nielssen O (2011) Cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis: a systematic meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:555–561Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lee JY, Brook JS, Finch SJ, Brook DW (2018) Trajectories of cannabis use beginning in adolescence associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in the mid-thirties. Subst Abuse 39:39–45Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lev-Ran S, Le Foll B, McKenzie K, George TP, Rehm J (2013) Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders among individuals with mental illness. Compr Psychiatry 54:589–598Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Leweke F, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth C, Hoyer C, Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Koethe D (2012) Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry 2:e94Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Loflin M, Earleywine M (2014) A new method of cannabis ingestion: the dangers of dabs? Addict Behav 39:1430–1433Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lopez-Quintero C, de los Cobos JP, Hasin DS, Okuda M, Wang S, Grant BF, Blanco C (2011) Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: results of the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (nesarc). Drug Alcohol Depend 115:120–130Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lynskey M, Hall W (2000) The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: a review. Addiction 95:1621–1630Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ma M, Coles AS, George TP (2018) Understanding and treating co-occurring bipolar disorder and substance use disorders. Psychiatric Times 35:8–9Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Manhapra A, Stefanovics E, Rosenheck R (2015) Treatment outcomes for veterans with ptsd and substance use: impact of specific substances and achievement of abstinence. Drug Alcohol Depend 156:70–77Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Manrique-Garcia E, Zammit S, Dalman C, Hemmingsson T, Andreasson S, Allebeck P (2014) Prognosis of schizophrenia in persons with and without a history of cannabis use. Psychol Med 44:2513–2521Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marconi A, Di Forti M, Lewis CM, Murray RM, Vassos E (2016) Meta-analysis of the association between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. Schizophr Bull 42:1262–1269Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    McGuire P, Robson P, Cubala WJ, Vasile D, Morrison PD, Barron R, Taylor A, Wright S (2017) Cannabidiol (cbd) as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 175:225–231Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    McGuire P, Robson P, Cubala WJ, Vasile D, Morrison PD et al (2018) Cannabidiol (cbd) as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 175:225–231Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, Harrington H, Houts R, Keefe RS, McDonald K, Ward A, Poulton R, Moffitt TE (2012) Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1073/nas.1206820109 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Metrik J, Bassett SS, Aston ER, Jackson KM, Borsari B (2018) Medicinal versus recreational cannabis use among returning veterans. Transl Issues Psychol Sci 4:6Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Metrik J, Jackson K, Bassett SS, Zvolensky MJ, Seal K, Borsari B (2016) The mediating roles of coping, sleep, and anxiety motives in cannabis use and problems among returning veterans with ptsd and mdd. Psychol Addict Behav 30:743Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Moitra E, Anderson BJ, Stein MD (2016) Reductions in cannabis use are associated with mood improvement in female emerging adults. Depression Anxiety 33:332–338Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Morrison P, Zois V, McKeown D, Lee T, Holt D, Powell J, Kapur S, Murray R (2009) The acute effects of synthetic intravenous δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on psychosis, mood and cognitive functioning. Psychol Med 39:1607–1616Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN (2008) Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. J Pain 9:254–264Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    National Academies of Sciences E, Medicine (2017) The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: the current state of evidence and recommendations for research. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nunberg H, Kilmer B, Pacula RL, Burgdorf JR (2011) An analysis of applicants presenting to a medical marijuana specialty practice in california. J Drug Policy Anal.  https://doi.org/10.2202/1941-2851.1017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Østergaard ML, Nordentoft M, Hjorthøj C (2017) Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or personality disorder. Addiction 112:1250–1259Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Parsons LH, Hurd YL (2015) Endocannabinoid signalling in reward and addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 16:579Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Patel R, Wilson R, Jackson R, Ball M, Shetty H, Broadbent M, Stewart R, McGuire P, Bhattacharyya S (2015) Cannabis use and treatment resistance in first episode psychosis: a natural language processing study. Lancet 385:S79Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Piontek D, Kraus L, Bjarnason T, Demetrovics Z, Ramstedt M (2013) Individual and country-level effects of cannabis-related perceptions on cannabis use. A multilevel study among adolescents in 32 european countries. J Adolesc Health 52:473–479Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Quello SB, Brady KT, Sonne SC (2005) Mood disorders and substance use disorder: a complex comorbidity. Sci Pract Perspect 3:13Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rabin RA, Barr MS, Goodman MS, Herman Y, Zakzanis KK, Kish SJ, Kiang M, Remington G, George TP (2017) Effects of extended cannabis abstinence on cognitive outcomes in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia vs non-psychiatric controls. Neuropsychopharmacology 42:2259–2271Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rabin RA, Kozak K, Zakzanis KK, Remington G, George TP (2018) Effects of extended cannabis abstinence on clinical symptoms in cannabis dependent schizophrenia patients versus non-psychiatric controls. Schizophr Res 194:55–61Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rabin RA, Zakzanis KK, Daskalakis ZJ, George TP (2013) Effects of cannabis use status on cognitive function, in males with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 206:158–165Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    RachBeisel J, Scott J, Dixon L (1999) Co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders: a review of recent research. Psychiatr Serv 50:1427–1434Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rasic D, Weerasinghe S, Asbridge M, Langille DB (2013) Longitudinal associations of cannabis and illicit drug use with depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts among nova scotia high school students. Drug Alcohol Depend 129:49–53Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ratheesh A, Cotton SM, Betts JK, Chanen A, Nelson B, Davey CG, McGorry PD, Berk M, Bechdolf A (2015) Prospective progression from high-prevalence disorders to bipolar disorder: exploring characteristics of pre-illness stages. J Affect Disord 183:45–48Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Reinarman C, Nunberg H, Lanthier F, Heddleston T (2011) Who are medical marijuana patients? Population characteristics from nine california assessment clinics. J Psychoact Drugs 43:128–135Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Richter KP, Levy S (2014) Big marijuana—lessons from big tobacco. N Engl J Med 371:399–401Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Roitman P, Mechoulam R, Cooper-Kazaz R, Shalev A (2014) Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Clin Drug Investig 34:587–591Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rotermann M, Langlois K (2015) Prevalence and correlates of marijuana use in canada, 2012. Statistics Canada Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sagar KA, Dahlgren MK, Racine MT, Dreman MW, Olson DP, Gruber SA (2016) Joint effects: a pilot investigation of the impact of bipolar disorder and marijuana use on cognitive function and mood. PLoS One 11:e0157060Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sami MB, Rabiner EA, Bhattacharyya S (2015) Does cannabis affect dopaminergic signaling in the human brain? A systematic review of evidence to date. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 25:1201–1224Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schoeler T, Monk A, Sami MB, Klamerus E, Foglia E, Brown R, Camuri G, Altamura AC, Murray R, Bhattacharyya S (2016) Continued versus discontinued cannabis use in patients with psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 3:215–225Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Schoeler T, Theobald D, Pingault J-B, Farrington DP, Coid JW, Bhattacharyya S (2018) Developmental sensitivity to cannabis use patterns and risk for major depressive disorder in mid-life: findings from 40 years of follow-up. Psychological Med 48(13):2169–2176Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Scholes-Balog KE, Hemphill SA, Evans-Whipp TJ, Toumbourou JW, Patton GC (2016) Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: a longitudinal study of australian youth. Addict Behav 53:11–18Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schuckit MA (2006) Comorbidity between substance use disorders and psychiatric conditions. Addiction 101:76–88Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Schuermeyer J, Salomonsen-Sautel S, Price RK, Balan S, Thurstone C, Min S-J, Sakai JT (2014) Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003–11. Drug Alcohol Depend 140:145–155Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sexton M, Cuttler C, Finnell JS, Mischley LK (2016) A cross-sectional survey of medical cannabis users: patterns of use and perceived efficacy. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 1:131–138Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sherva R, Wang Q, Kranzler H, Zhao H, Koesterer R, Herman A, Farrer LA, Gelernter J (2016) Genome-wide association study of cannabis dependence severity, novel risk variants, and shared genetic risks. JAMA Psychiatry 73:472–480Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D (2008) Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain 9:164–173Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Solowij N, Stephens RS, Roffman RA, Babor T, Kadden R, Miller M, Christiansen K, McRee B, Vendetti J (2002) Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. JAMA 287:1123–1131Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Strakowski SM, DelBello MP, Fleck DE, Adler CM, Anthenelli RM, Keck PE, Arnold LM, Amicone J (2007) Effects of co-occurring cannabis use disorders on the course of bipolar disorder after a first hospitalization for mania. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:57–64Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Swendsen J, Conway KP, Degenhardt L, Glantz M, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Sampson N, Kessler RC (2010) Mental disorders as risk factors for substance use, abuse and dependence: results from the 10-year follow-up of the national comorbidity survey. Addiction 105:1117–1128Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Swendsen JD, Merikangas KR (2000) The comorbidity of depression and substance use disorders. Clin Psychol Rev 20:173–189Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tournier M, Sorbara F, Gindre C, Swendsen JD, Verdoux H (2003) Cannabis use and anxiety in daily life: a naturalistic investigation in a non-clinical population. Psychiatry Res 118:1–8Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tull MT, McDermott MJ, Gratz KL (2016) Marijuana dependence moderates the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder on trauma cue reactivity in substance dependent patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 159:219–226Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Van Dam NT, Bedi G, Earleywine M (2012) Characteristics of clinically anxious versus non-anxious regular, heavy marijuana users. Addict Behav 37:1217–1223Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    van der Pol P, Liebregts N, de Graaf R, ten Have M, Korf DJ, van den Brink W, van Laar M (2013) Mental health differences between frequent cannabis users with and without dependence and the general population. Addiction 108:1459–1469Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Van Laar M, Van Dorsselaer S, Monshouwer K, De Graaf R (2007) Does cannabis use predict the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the adult population? Addiction 102:1251–1260Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Van Os J, Bak M, Hanssen M, Bijl R, De Graaf R, Verdoux H (2002) Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study. Am J Epidemiol 156:319–327Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vandermeeren R, Hebbrecht M (2012) The dual process model of addiction. towards an integrated model? Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie 54:731–740Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Vandrey R, Raber JC, Raber ME, Douglass B, Miller C, Bonn-Miller MO (2015) Cannabinoid dose and label accuracy in edible medical cannabis products. JAMA 313:2491–2493Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Villagonzalo K-A, Dodd S, Ng F, Mihaly S, Langbein A, Berk M (2011) The relationship between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder in a methadone maintenance treatment program. Compr Psychiatry 52:562–566Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Volkow ND, Baler RD, Compton WM, Weiss SR (2014) Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med 370:2219–2227Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Volkow ND, Li T-K (2004) Drug addiction: the neurobiology of behaviour gone awry. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:963Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Walsh Z, Callaway R, Belle-Isle L, Capler R, Kay R, Lucas P, Holtzman S (2013) Cannabis for therapeutic purposes: patient characteristics, access, and reasons for use. Int J Drug Policy 24:511–516Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Whiting PF, Wolff RF, Deshpande S, Di Nisio M, Duffy S, Hernandez AV, Keurentjes JC, Lang S, Misso K, Ryder S (2015) Cannabinoids for medical use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313:2456–2473Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wilkinson ST, Stefanovics E, Rosenheck RA (2015) Marijuana use is associated with worse outcomes in symptom severity and violent behavior in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 76:1174–1180Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wise RA, Koob GF (2014) The development and maintenance of drug addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 39:254Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zorrilla I, Aguado J, Haro J, Barbeito S, Lopez Zurbano S, Ortiz A, Lopez P, Gonzalez-Pinto A (2015) Cannabis and bipolar disorder: does quitting cannabis use during manic/mixed episode improve clinical/functional outcomes? Acta Psychiatr Scand 131:100–110Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Zvolensky MJ, Lewinsohn P, Bernstein A, Schmidt NB, Buckner JD, Seeley J, Bonn-Miller MO (2008) Prospective associations between cannabis use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks and disorder. J Psychiatr Res 42:1017–1023Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darby J. E. Lowe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Julia D. Sasiadek
    • 1
  • Alexandria S. Coles
    • 1
  • Tony P. George
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Addictions Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)University of TorontoTorontoUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Medical SciencesUniversity of TorontoTorontoUSA
  3. 3.Division and Brain and Therapeutics, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoUSA

Personalised recommendations