Hypovitaminosis D is associated with negative symptoms, suicide risk, agoraphobia, impaired functional remission, and antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia

  • G. FondEmail author
  • M. Faugere
  • C. Faget-Agius
  • M. Cermolacce
  • R. Richieri
  • L. Boyer
  • C. Lançon
Original Paper


Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with, respectively, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia (SZ), and cognitive disorders in the general population, and with positive and negative symptoms and metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in a non-selected multicentric sample of SZ subjects in day hospital. Hypovitaminosis D was defined by blood vitamin D level < 25 nM. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Calgary Depression Rating Scale Score and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Score. Anxiety disorders and suicide risk were evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders. Functioning was evaluated with the Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia Scale. Hypovitaminosis D has been found in 27.5% of the subjects. In multivariate analysis, hypovitaminosis D has been significantly associated with, respectively, higher suicide risk (aOR = 2.67 [1.31–5.46], p = 0.01), agoraphobia (aOR = 3.37 [1.66–6.85], p < 0.0001), antidepressant consumption (aOR = 2.52 [1.37–4.64], p < 0.001), negative symptoms (aOR = 1.04 [1.01–1.07], p = 0.04), decreased functioning (aOR = 0.97[0.95–0.99], p = 0.01), and increased leucocytosis (aOR = 1.17 [1.04–1.32], p = 0.01) independently of age and gender. No association with alcohol use disorder, metabolic syndrome, peripheral inflammation, insulin resistance, or thyroid disturbances has been found (all p > 0.05). Despite some slight abnormalities, no major cognitive impairment has been associated with hypovitaminosis D in the present sample (all p > 0.05 except for WAIS similarities score). Hypovitaminosis D is frequent and associated with suicide risk, agoraphobia and antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia, and more slightly with negative symptoms. Patients with agoraphobia, suicide risk and antidepressant consumption may, therefore, benefit in priority from vitamin D supplementation, given the benefit/risk profile of vitamin D. Further studies should evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes of SZ subjects.


Vitamin D Schizophrenia Depression Anxiety Metabolic syndrome Antidepressant Agoraphobia Suicide risk 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Fond
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • M. Faugere
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • C. Faget-Agius
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. Cermolacce
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • R. Richieri
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • L. Boyer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • C. Lançon
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryLa Conception University HospitalMarseilleFrance
  2. 2.Faculté de Médecine, Secteur Timone, EA 3279, EA 3279: CEReSS-Centre d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Services de Santé et la Qualité de vieAix-Marseille UnivMarseilleFrance
  3. 3.SHU Adult PsychiatrySainte Marguerite University HospitalMarseilleFrance

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