Elemental fingerprinting of schizophrenia patient blood plasma before and after treatment with antipsychotics
Antipsychotics are the main line of treatment for schizophrenia, a disorder that affects about 1% of the worldwide population. Considering the poor performance of antipsychotics on patients, this work aimed at detecting alterations in the elemental profile resulting from the use of this type of medication using an elemental fingerprinting strategy. We evaluated 56 plasma samples from schizophrenia patients by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before (t0) and after 6 weeks (t6) of treatment. The level of response of the patients (good vs. poor responders) and the medications taken were considered. Zinc, aluminum, phosphorus, and iron levels were found to be increased, whereas sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels decreased after treatment. Aluminum presented a higher level in poor responders at t0 when compared to good responders. At t6, iron showed an increased level when compared to t0 for good responders; however, its level remained constant in poor responders. The results of this exploratory study provide clues for further investigations on the role of metal ions in the treatment of schizophrenia.
KeywordsMetallomics Blood Plasma Schizophrenia Antipsychotics ICP-MS Elemental Fingerprinting
The authors thank FAPESP, CNPq and CAPES for the financial support. PIBIC and CAPES are acknowledged for HME and GSP scholarships, respectively. Anke Dudeck, Daniela Fenker, Sieglinde Funke, Bianca Jerzykiewicz, Gabriela Meyer-Lotz, Katrin Paelchen, and Jeanette Schadow participated in the sample characterization and collection at the University of Magdeburg. Also, we thank Brad J. Smith for proofreading the article.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare to have no conflicts of interest.
FAPESP (Grant Numbers 2015/13229-1, 2013/08711-3, 2014/10068-4, 2014/50867-3, 2016/07384-7) and CNPq (88881.062204/2014-01, 460289/2014-4, 465389/2014-7).