Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated care program for schizophrenia: an analysis of routine data

  • Linda KerkemeyerEmail author
  • Jürgen Wasem
  • Anja Neumann
  • Werner Brannath
  • Benjamin Mester
  • Jürgen Timm
  • Thomas Wobrock
  • Claudia Bartels
  • Peter Falkai
  • Janine Biermann
Original Paper


In Germany, a regional social health insurance fund provides an integrated care program for patients with schizophrenia (IVS). Based on routine data of the social health insurance, this evaluation examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the IVS compared to the standard care (control group, CG). The primary outcome was the reduction of psychiatric inpatient treatment (days in hospital), and secondary outcomes were schizophrenia-related inpatient treatment, readmission rates, and costs. To reduce selection bias, a propensity score matching was performed. The matched sample included 752 patients. Mean number of psychiatric and schizophrenia-related hospital days of patients receiving IVS (2.3 ± 6.5, 1.7 ± 5.0) per quarter was reduced, but did not differ statistically significantly from CG (2.7 ± 7.6, 1.9 ± 6.2; p = 0.772, p = 0.352). Statistically significant between-group differences were found in costs per quarter per person caused by outpatient treatment by office-based psychiatrists (IVS: €74.18 ± 42.30, CG: €53.20 ± 47.96; p < 0.001), by psychiatric institutional outpatient departments (IVS: €4.83 ± 29.57, CG: €27.35 ± 76.48; p < 0.001), by medication (IVS: €471.75 ± 493.09, CG: €429.45 ± 532.73; p = 0.015), and by psychiatric outpatient nursing (IVS: €3.52 ± 23.83, CG: €12.67 ± 57.86, p = 0.045). Mean total psychiatric costs per quarter per person in IVS (€1117.49 ± 1662.73) were not significantly lower than in CG (€1180.09 ± 1948.24; p = 0.150). No statistically significant differences in total schizophrenia-related costs per quarter per person were detected between IVS (€979.46 ± 1358.79) and CG (€989.45 ± 1611.47; p = 0.084). The cost-effectiveness analysis showed cost savings of €148.59 per reduced psychiatric and €305.40 per reduced schizophrenia-related hospital day. However, limitations, especially non-inclusion of costs related to management of the IVS and additional home treatment within the IVS, restrict the interpretation of the results. Therefore, the long-term impact of this IVS deserves further evaluation.


Health economics evaluation Outpatient integrated care Routine data analysis Statutory health insurance Germany 


Compliance with ethical standards


This scientific evaluation study was funded by the Management Company and the Federal Association of the AOK (AOK-Bundesverband).

Conflict of interest

T. Wobrock was honorary speaker for Alpine Biomed, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, I3G, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, Lundbeck, Sanofi-Aventis, Otsuka, Roche, and Pfizer, and longer than 5 years ago he has accepted travel or hospitality funds not related to a speaking engagement from AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, and Sanofi-Synthelabo; and he has received a research grant from AstraZeneca, Cerbomed, I3G and AOK (health insurance company), the German Research Foundation (DFG), and the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). He is a member of the advisory board of Janssen-Cilag and Otsuka/Lundbeck. W. Brannath has been consultant and iDMC member for Novartis Pharma AG, Roche, and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG. The other authors have declared that there are no conflicts of interest in relation to the subject of this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Kerkemeyer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jürgen Wasem
    • 1
  • Anja Neumann
    • 1
  • Werner Brannath
    • 2
  • Benjamin Mester
    • 2
  • Jürgen Timm
    • 2
  • Thomas Wobrock
    • 3
    • 4
  • Claudia Bartels
    • 4
  • Peter Falkai
    • 5
  • Janine Biermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Health Care Management and ResearchUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  2. 2.Competence Centre for Clinical Trials/BiometryUniversity of BremenBremenGermany
  3. 3.Centre of Mental HealthCounty Hospitals Darmstadt-DieburgGroß-UmstadtGermany
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyGeorg-August UniversityGöttingenGermany
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyLudwig-Maximilians-UniversityMunichGermany

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