The effect of frontal sinus pneumatization on anatomic variants of paranasal sinuses

  • Demet YaziciEmail author



The aim of this study is to determine the effect of frontal sinus pneumatization on various variations of paranasal sinuses on maxillofacial CT.

Materials and methods

A total number of 120 patients (62 females, 58 males) were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups regarding their frontal sinus pneumatization extent on paranasal sinus CT as Type 1 pneumatization (aplasia and hypoplasia), Type 2 pneumatization (medium) and Type 3 pneumatization (hyperplasia). The prevalence of various variations on paranasal sinus CT like pneumatization of upper and middle concha, presence of agger nasi, Haller and Onodi cell, maxillary sinus and sphenoid sinus hypoplasia, pneumatization of anterior clinoid process, pterygoid process and greater wing of sphenoid sinus, dehiscence and protrusion of internal carotid artery and optic nerve and vidian canal types were ascertained and compared within each group.


The prevalence of upper and middle concha pneumatization, Haller cell, pneumatization of anterior clinoid process, pterygoid process and greater wing of sphenoid and internal carotid artery dehiscence and protrusion was higher in Type 3 group compared with other groups.


Excessive pneumatization of frontal sinus has various effects on paranasal sinus variations at maxillofacial CT. Surgeons dealing with endoscopic sinus surgery, maxillofacial and skull base surgery must be vigilant of association between certain variations when analyzing CT scan preoperatively for avoiding complications.


Paranasal sinus Computed tomography Frontal sinus 




Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All of the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. Informed consent was obtained from all patients included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ENT DepartmentAdana City Training and Research HospitalAdanaTurkey

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