Survival analysis of distant metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma: analysis based on SEER database
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors and the value of surgical treatment of patients with newly diagnosed laryngeal cancer with distant metastasis (DM).
The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result database (SEER) was used to analyze 446 patients with laryngeal cancer with DM at the time of initial diagnosis from 2010 to 2014.The survival prognosis of patients with DM was performed by using Kaplan–Meier and log-rank test. The prognostic factors and the effect of surgery were analyzed using the Cox regression analysis and R-language data package.
The incidence of DM was 3.21% (446/13865). Lung was the most common distant metastatic site of laryngeal cancer (62.6%), and brain metastases had the worst prognosis in patients at 2 months. T stage and brain metastasis were independent risk factors affecting the survival (P < 0.05). The hazard ratio (HR) of DM in T4 stage was nearly twice than that in T1 stage. Surgical treatment of primary and metastatic tumors can cause better survival for patients. Patients who didn’t underwent primary tumor surgery were approximately twice as likely to die from cancer as those who did. The nomogram model was constructed to visually present the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients.
T stage, brain metastasis and surgical treatment are prognostic factors of patients with M1 stage laryngeal cancer. Surgical treatment of primary tumors and metastases can lead to better survival for patients.
KeywordsLaryngeal cancer Distant metastasis SEER Prognosis Surgical treatment
The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result database
- 95% CI
95% confidence interval
Median survival time
YP: formal analysis, project administration, writing original draft, and writing review and editing. YH: design of the epidemiological investigation and formal analysis. ZL: conceptualization, supervision, data curation and validation. WZ: data curation, methodology, software, project administration, and writing review and editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants conform to the standards of the institutional and national ethics committees, as well as to the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and subsequent relevant ethics. Patient informed consent is not required to extract data from the SEER database.
Consent for publication
All authors are informed and consent for publication.
Availability of data and material
All data were acquired from the SEER database. We obtained the authorization to access the SEER database with the number 14260-Nov2016.
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