Advertisement

Approach to cervicogenic dizziness: a comprehensive review of its aetiopathology and management

  • K. Devaraja
Review Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Though there is abundant literature on cervicogenic dizziness with at least half a dozen of review articles, the condition remains to be enigmatic for clinicians dealing with the dizzy patients. However, most of these studies have studied the cervicogenic dizziness in general without separating the constitute conditions. Since the aetiopathological mechanism of dizziness varies between these cervicogenic causes, one cannot rely on the universal conclusions of these studies unless the constitute conditions of cervicogenic dizziness are separated and contrasted against each other.

Methods

This narrative review of recent literature revisits the pathophysiology and the management guidelines of various conditions causing the cervicogenic dizziness, with an objective to formulate a practical algorithm that could be of clinical utility. The structured discussion on each of the causes of the cervicogenic dizziness not only enhances the readers’ understanding of the topic in depth but also enables further research by identifying the potential areas of interest and the missing links.

Results

Certain peculiar features of each condition have been discussed with an emphasis on the recent experimental and clinical studies. A simple aetiopathological classification and a sensible management algorithm have been proposed by the author, to enable the identification of the most appropriate underlying cause for the cervicogenic dizziness in any given case. However, further clinical studies are required to validate this algorithm.

Conclusions

So far, no single clinical study, either epidemiological or interventional, has incorporated and isolated all the constitute conditions of cervicogenic dizziness. There is a need for such studies in the future to validate either the reliability of a clinical test or the efficacy of an intervention in cervicogenic dizziness.

Keywords

Cervicogenic dizziness Cervical vertigo Bow hunter’s syndrome Barre–Lieou syndrome Whiplash-associated disorder Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

Not applicable.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. 1.
    Lee AT (2012) Diagnosing the cause of vertigo: a practical approach. Hong Kong Med J 18:327–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Post RE, Dickerson LM (2010) Dizziness: a diagnostic approach. Am Fam Physician 82:361–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bisdorff A, Von Brevern M, Lempert T, Newman-Toker DE (2009) Classification of vestibular symptoms: towards an international classification of vestibular disorders. J Vestib Res Equilib Orientat 19:1–13Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wrisley DM, Sparto PJ, Whitney SL, Furman JM (2000) Cervicogenic dizziness: a review of diagnosis and treatment. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 30:755–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yacovino DA, Hain TC (2013) Clinical characteristics of cervicogenic-related dizziness and vertigo. Semin Neurol 33:244–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jung FC, Mathew S, Littmann AE, MacDonald CW (2017) Clinical decision making in the management of patients with cervicogenic dizziness: a case series. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 47:874–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Takahashi S (2018) Importance of cervicogenic general dizziness. J Rural Med JRM 13:48–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    St George RJ, Fitzpatrick RC (2011) The sense of self-motion, orientation and balance explored by vestibular stimulation. J Physiol 589:807–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grgić V (2006) Cervicogenic proprioceptive vertigo: etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapy with special emphasis on manual therapy. Lijec Vjesn 128:288–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karnath H-O, Reich E, Rorden C, Fetter M, Driver J (2002) The perception of body orientation after neck-proprioceptive stimulation. Exp Brain Res 143:350–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wyke B (1979) Cervical articular contribution to posture and gait: their relation to senile disequilibrium. Age Ageing 8:251–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maravita A, Spence C, Driver J (2003) Multisensory integration and the body schema: close to hand and within reach. Curr Biol CB 13:R531–R539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pettorossi VE, Schieppati M (2014) Neck proprioception shapes body orientation and perception of motion. Front Hum Neurosci 8:895PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grande-Alonso M, Moral Saiz B, Mínguez Zuazo A, Lerma Lara S, La Touche R (2018) Biobehavioural analysis of the vestibular system and posture control in patients with cervicogenic dizziness. A cross-sectional study. Neurol Barc Spain 33:98–106Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Treleaven J, Jull G, Sterling M (2003) Dizziness and unsteadiness following whiplash injury: characteristic features and relationship with cervical joint position error. J Rehabil Med 35:36–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang L, Yang C, Pang X, Li D, Yang H, Zhang X et al (2017) Mechanoreceptors in diseased cervical intervertebral disc and vertigo. Spine 42:540–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hirasawa Y, Okajima S, Ohta M, Tokioka T (2000) Nerve distribution to the human knee joint: anatomical and immunohistochemical study. Int Orthop 24:1–4PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abraira VE, Ginty DD (2013) The sensory neurons of touch. Neuron 79:618–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yahia A, Ghroubi S, Jribi S, Mâlla J, Baklouti S, Ghorbel A et al (2009) Chronic neck pain and vertigo: is a true balance disorder present? Ann Phys Rehabil Med 52:556–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Morinaka S (2009) Musculoskeletal diseases as a causal factor of cervical vertigo. Auris Nasus Larynx 36:649–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ryan GM, Cope S (1955) Cervical vertigo. Lancet Lond Engl 269:1355–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peng B, Yang L, Yang C, Pang X, Chen X, Wu Y (2018) The effectiveness of anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the relief of dizziness in patients with cervical spondylosis: a multicentre prospective cohort study. Bone Jt J 100:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sun Y-Q, Zheng S, Yu J, Yan K, Tian W (2013) Effect of total disc replacement on atypical symptoms associated with cervical spondylosis. Eur Spine J 22:1553–1557PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ren L, Guo B, Zhang J, Han Z, Zhang T, Bai Q et al (2014) Mid-term efficacy of percutaneous laser disc decompression for treatment of cervical vertigo. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 24:S153–S158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garfin SR (2000) Cervical degenerative disorders: etiology, presentation, and imaging studies. Instr Course Lect 49:335–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nishikawa H, Miya F, Kitano Y, Mori G, Shimizu S, Suzuki H (2017) Positional occlusion of vertebral artery due to cervical spondylosis as rare cause of wake-up stroke: report of two cases. World Neurosurg 98:877.e13–877.e21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fleming JB, Vora TK, Harrigan MR (2013) Rare case of bilateral vertebral artery stenosis caused by C4–5 spondylotic changes manifesting with bilateral bow hunter’s syndrome. World Neurosurg 79:799.E1–799.E5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Piñol I, Ramirez M, Saló G, Ros AM, Blanch AL (2013) Symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis secondary to cervical spondylolisthesis. Spine 38:E1503–E1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iida Y, Murata H, Johkura K, Higashida T, Tanaka T, Tateishi K (2018) Bow Hunter’s syndrome by nondominant vertebral artery compression: a case report, literature review, and significance of downbeat nystagmus as the diagnostic clue. World Neurosurg 111:367–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gore DR, Sepic SB, Gardner GM (1986) Roentgenographic findings of the cervical spine in asymptomatic people. Spine 11:521–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ofiram E, Garvey TA, Schwender JD, Denis F, Perra JH, Transfeldt EE et al (2009) Cervical degenerative index: a new quantitative radiographic scoring system for cervical spondylosis with interobserver and intraobserver reliability testing. J Orthop Traumatol 10:21–26PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bayrak IK, Durmus D, Bayrak AO, Diren B, Canturk F, Canturk F (2009) Effect of cervical spondylosis on vertebral arterial flow and its association with vertigo. Clin Rheumatol 28:59–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Machaly SA, Senna MK, Sadek AG (2011) Vertigo is associated with advanced degenerative changes in patients with cervical spondylosis. Clin Rheumatol 30:1527–1534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cevik R, Bilici A, Nas K, Demircan Z, Tekin RC (2010) Non-invasive evaluation of vertebral artery blood flow in cervical spondylosis with and without vertigo and association with degenerative changes. Clin Rheumatol 29:541–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Olszewski J, Majak J, Pietkiewicz P, Luszcz C, Repetowski M (2006) The association between positional vertebral and basilar artery flow lesion and prevalence of vertigo in patients with cervical spondylosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134:680–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Strek P, Reroń E, Maga P, Modrzejewski M, Szybist N (1998) A possible correlation between vertebral artery insufficiency and degenerative changes in the cervical spine. Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 255:437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barre J (1926) On a posterior cervical sympathetic syndrome and its frequent cause: cervical arthritis [in French]. Rev Neurol (Paris) 45:1246–1248Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Heistad DD, Marcus ML, Gross PM (1978) Effects of sympathetic nerves on cerebral vessels in dog, cat, and monkey. Am J Physiol 235:H544–H552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Heistad DD, Marcus ML (1978) Evidence that neural mechanisms do not have important effects on cerebral blood flow. Circ Res 42:295–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Faraci FM, Heistad DD (1990) Regulation of large cerebral arteries and cerebral microvascular pressure. Circ Res 66:8–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baumbach GL, Heistad DD, Siems JE (1989) Effect of sympathetic nerves on composition and distensibility of cerebral arterioles in rats. J Physiol 416:123–140PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pearce JMS (2004) Barré-Liéou “syndrome”. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:319PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Foster CA, Jabbour P (2007) Barré–Lieou syndrome and the problem of the obsolete eponym. J Laryngol Otol 121:680–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Li J, Gu T, Yang H, Liang L, Jiang D, Wang Z et al (2014) Sympathetic nerve innervation in cervical posterior longitudinal ligament as a potential causative factor in cervical spondylosis with sympathetic symptoms and preliminary evidence. Med Hypotheses 82:631–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hong L, Kawaguchi Y (2011) Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion to treat cervical spondylosis with sympathetic symptoms. J Spinal Disord Tech 24:11–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li H, Ma X, Wu X, Liu F, Yu T, Yue B et al (2014) Morphological observation of sympathetic nerve fibers in the human posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine 39:2119–2126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhong Z, Hu J, Zhai J, Tian Y, Qiu G, Weng X et al (2015) Therapeutic effect and mechanism of the surgical treatment for cervical vertigo with cervical spondylosis. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 95:2014–2017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Muheremu A, Sun Y, Yan K, Yu J, Zheng S, Tian W (2016) Effect of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion on patients with atypical symptoms related to cervical spondylosis. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 77:395–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Li J, Jiang D-J, Wang X-W, Yuan W, Liang L, Wang Z-C (2016) Mid-term outcomes of anterior cervical fusion for cervical spondylosis with sympathetic symptoms. Clin Spine Surg 29:255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang Z, Wang X, Yuan W, Jiang D (2011) Degenerative pathological irritations to cervical PLL may play a role in presenting sympathetic symptoms. Med Hypotheses 77:921–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zuo J, Han J, Qiu S, Luan F, Zhu X, Gao H et al (2014) Neural reflex pathway between cervical spinal and sympathetic ganglia in rabbits: implication for pathogenesis of cervical vertigo. Spine J 14:1005–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bose K (1999) The efficacy and safety of eperisone in patients with cervical spondylosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 21:209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Moustafa IM, Diab AA, Harrison DE (2017) The effect of normalizing the sagittal cervical configuration on dizziness, neck pain, and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility: a 1-year randomized controlled study. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 53:57–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Galm R, Rittmeister M, Schmitt E (1998) Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction. Eur Spine J 7:55–58PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Homola S (2006) Chiropractic: history and overview of theories and methods. Clin Orthop 444:236–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ndetan H, Hawk C, Sekhon VK, Chiusano M (2016) The role of chiropractic care in the treatment of dizziness or balance disorders: analysis of national health interview survey data. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med 21:138–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ernst E (2008) Chiropractic: a critical evaluation. J Pain Symptom Manag 35:544–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Young Y-H, Chen C-H (2003) Acute vertigo following cervical manipulation. Laryngoscope 113:659–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Frumkin LR, Baloh RW (1990) Wallenberg’s syndrome following neck manipulation. Neurology 40:611–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Albuquerque FC, Hu YC, Dashti SR, Abla AA, Clark JC, Alkire B et al (2011) Craniocervical arterial dissections as sequelae of chiropractic manipulation: patterns of injury and management. J Neurosurg 115:1197–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    John S, Tavee J (2015) Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis due to cervical chiropractic manipulation. Neurologist 9:65–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Quesnele JJ, Triano JJ, Noseworthy MD, Wells GD (2014) Changes in vertebral artery blood flow following various head positions and cervical spine manipulation. J Manip Physiol Ther 37:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fischer AJ, Verhagen WI, Huygen PL (1997) Whiplash injury. A clinical review with emphasis on neuro-otological aspects. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 22:192–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Spitzer WO, Skovron ML, Salmi LR, Cassidy JD, Duranceau J, Suissa S et al (1995) Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders: redefining “whiplash” and its management. Spine 20:1S–73SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Evans RW (1992) Some observations on whiplash injuries. Neurol Clin 10:975–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Claussen CF, Claussen E (1995) Neurootological contributions to the diagnostic follow-up after whiplash injuries. Acta Oto-Laryngol Suppl 520:53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ernst A, Basta D, Seidl RO, Todt I, Scherer H, Clarke A (2005) Management of posttraumatic vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 132:554–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Vibert D, Häusler R (2003) Acute peripheral vestibular deficits after whiplash injuries. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 112:246–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nacci A, Ferrazzi M, Berrettini S, Panicucci E, Matteucci J, Bruschini L et al (2011) Vestibular and stabilometric findings in whiplash injury and minor head trauma. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 31:378–389PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dispenza F, De Stefano A, Mathur N, Croce A, Gallina S (2011) Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following whiplash injury: a myth or a reality? Am J Otolaryngol 32:376–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gordon CR, Levite R, Joffe V, Gadoth N (2004) Is posttraumatic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo different from the idiopathic form? Arch Neurol 61:1590–1593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tjell C, Rosenhall U (1998) Smooth pursuit neck torsion test: a specific test for cervical dizziness. Am J Otol 19:76–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yu L-J, Stokell R, Treleaven J (2011) The effect of neck torsion on postural stability in subjects with persistent whiplash. Man Ther 16:339–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Treleaven J, Jull G, Lowchoy N (2005) Standing balance in persistent whiplash: a comparison between subjects with and without dizziness. J Rehabil Med 37:224–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hinoki M (1985) Vertigo due to whiplash injury: a neurotological approach. Acta Oto-Laryngol Suppl 419:9–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Treleaven J (2017) Dizziness, unsteadiness, visual disturbances, and sensorimotor control in traumatic neck pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 47:492–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Madeleine P, Prietzel H, Svarrer H, Arendt-Nielsen L (2004) Quantitative posturography in altered sensory conditions: a way to assess balance instability in patients with chronic whiplash injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:432–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Endo K, Suzuki H, Yamamoto K (2008) Consciously postural sway and cervical vertigo after whiplash injury. Spine 33:E539–E542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vonk J, Horlings CGC, Allum JHJ (2010) Differentiating malingering balance disorder patients from healthy controls, compensated unilateral vestibular loss, and whiplash patients using stance and gait posturography. Audiol Neurootol 15:261–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Karlberg M, Johansson R, Magnusson M, Fransson PA (1996) Dizziness of suspected cervical origin distinguished by posturographic assessment of human postural dynamics. J Vestib Res Equilib Orientat 6:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Norré ME (1987) Cervical vertigo. Diagnostic and semiological problem with special emphasis upon “cervical nystagmus”. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 41:436–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brandt T, Bronstein AM (2001) Cervical vertigo. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 71:8–12PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Oosterveld WJ, Kortschot HW, Kingma GG, de Jong HA, Saatci MR (1991) Electronystagmographic findings following cervical whiplash injuries. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 111:201–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Basteris A, Pedler A, Sterling M (2016) Evaluating the neck joint position sense error with a standard computer and a webcam. Man Ther 26:231–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    de Vries J, Ischebeck BK, Voogt LP, van der Geest JN, Janssen M, Frens MA et al (2015) Joint position sense error in people with neck pain: a systematic review. Man Ther 20:736–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Feipel V, Salvia P, Klein H, Rooze M (2006) Head repositioning accuracy in patients with whiplash-associated disorders. Spine 31:E51–E58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sterling M, Jull G, Vicenzino B, Kenardy J, Darnell R (2003) Development of motor system dysfunction following whiplash injury. Pain 103:65–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jansen GB, Edlund C, Grane P, Hildingsson C, Karlberg M, Link H et al (2008) Whiplash injuries: diagnosis and early management. The Swedish Society of Medicine and the Whiplash Commission Medical Task Force. Eur Spine J 17:S355–S417Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Malmström E-M, Karlberg M, Fransson P-A, Lindbladh J, Magnusson M (2009) Cervical proprioception is sufficient for head orientation after bilateral vestibular loss. Eur J Appl Physiol 107:73–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gimse R, Tjell C, Bjørgen IA, Saunte C (1996) Disturbed eye movements after whiplash due to injuries to the posture control system. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 18:178–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dispenza F, Gargano R, Mathur N, Saraniti C, Gallina S (2011) Analysis of visually guided eye movements in subjects after whiplash injury. Auris Nasus Larynx 38:185–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Prushansky T, Dvir Z, Pevzner E, Gordon CR (2004) Electro-oculographic measures in patients with chronic whiplash and healthy subjects: a comparative study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1642–1644PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kongsted A, Jørgensen LV, Bendix T, Korsholm L, Leboeuf-Yde C (2007) Are smooth pursuit eye movements altered in chronic whiplash-associated disorders? A cross-sectional study. Clin Rehabil 21:1038–1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ischebeck BK, de Vries J, Van der Geest JN, Janssen M, Van Wingerden JP, Kleinrensink GJ et al (2016) Eye movements in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 17:441PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Treleaven J, Jull G, LowChoy N (2005) Smooth pursuit neck torsion test in whiplash-associated disorders: relationship to self-reports of neck pain and disability, dizziness and anxiety. J Rehabil Med 37:219–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Janssen M, Ischebeck BK, de Vries J, Kleinrensink G-J, Frens MA, van der Geest JN (2015) Smooth pursuit eye movement deficits in patients with whiplash and neck pain are modulated by target predictability. Spine 40:E1052–E1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Treleaven J, Jull G, LowChoy N (2006) The relationship of cervical joint position error to balance and eye movement disturbances in persistent whiplash. Man Ther 11:99–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jull GA, O’Leary SP, Falla DL (2008) Clinical assessment of the deep cervical flexor muscles: the craniocervical flexion test. J Manip Physiol Ther 31:525–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Montfoort I, Van Der Geest JN, Slijper HP, De Zeeuw CI, Frens MA (2008) Adaptation of the cervico- and vestibulo-ocular reflex in whiplash injury patients. J Neurotrauma 25:687–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kelders WP, Kleinrensink GJ, Geest JNVD, Schipper IB, Feenstra L, Zeeuw CID et al (2005) The cervico-ocular reflex is increased in whiplash injury patients. J Neurotrauma 22:133–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jull G, Kristjansson E, Dall’Alba P (2004) Impairment in the cervical flexors: a comparison of whiplash and insidious onset neck pain patients. Man Ther 9:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Teasell RW, McClure JA, Walton D, Pretty J, Salter K, Meyer M et al (2010) A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): part 4—noninvasive interventions for chronic WAD. Pain Res Manag 15:313–322PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lystad RP, Bell G, Bonnevie-Svendsen M, Carter CV (2011) Manual therapy with and without vestibular rehabilitation for cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review. Chiropr Man Ther 19:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yaseen K, Hendrick P, Ismail A, Felemban M, Alshehri MA (2018) The effectiveness of manual therapy in treating cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review. J Phys Ther Sci 30:96–102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Van Oosterwijck J, Nijs J, Meeus M, Truijen S, Craps J, Van den Keybus N et al (2011) Pain neurophysiology education improves cognitions, pain thresholds, and movement performance in people with chronic whiplash: a pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev 48:43–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Meeus M, Nijs J, Hamers V, Ickmans K, Oosterwijck JV (2012) The efficacy of patient education in whiplash associated disorders: a systematic review. Pain Physician 15:351–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Minguez-Zuazo A, Grande-Alonso M, Saiz BM, La Touche R, Lara SL (2016) Therapeutic patient education and exercise therapy in patients with cervicogenic dizziness: a prospective case series clinical study. J Exerc Rehabil 12:216–225PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Michaleff ZA, Maher CG, Lin C-WC, Rebbeck T, Jull G, Latimer J et al (2014) Comprehensive physiotherapy exercise programme or advice for chronic whiplash (PROMISE): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl 384:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nijs J, Ickmans K (2014) Chronic whiplash-associated disorders: to exercise or not? Lancet Lond Engl 384:109–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sterling M (2014) Physiotherapy management of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). J Physiother 60:5–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Teasell RW, McClure JA, Walton D, Pretty J, Salter K, Meyer M et al (2010) A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): part 5—surgical and injection-based interventions for chronic WAD. Pain Res Manag 15:323–334PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sorensen BF (1978) Bow hunter’s stroke. Neurosurgery 2:259–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lu DC, Zador Z, Mummaneni PV, Lawton MT (2010) Rotational vertebral artery occlusion—series of 9 cases. Neurosurgery 67:1066–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zaidi HA, Albuquerque FC, Chowdhry SA, Zabramski JM, Ducruet AF, Spetzler RF (2014) Diagnosis and management of bow hunter’s syndrome: 15-year experience at barrow neurological institute. World Neurosurg 82:733–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jost GF, Dailey AT (2015) Bow hunter’s syndrome revisited: 2 new cases and literature review of 124 cases. Neurosurg Focus 38:E7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tsutsumi S, Ito M, Yasumoto Y (2008) Simultaneous bilateral vertebral artery occlusion in the lower cervical spine manifesting as bow hunter’s syndrome. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 48:90–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Buchanan CC, McLaughlin N, Lu DC, Martin NA (2014) Rotational vertebral artery occlusion secondary to adjacent-level degeneration following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. J Neurosurg Spine 20:714–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Miele VJ, France JC, Rosen CL (2008) Subaxial positional vertebral artery occlusion corrected by decompression and fusion. Spine 33:E366–E370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lee V, Riles TS, Stableford J, Berguer R (2011) Two case presentations and surgical management of Bow Hunter’s syndrome associated with bony abnormalities of the C7 vertebra. J Vasc Surg 53:1381–1385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Darkhabani MZ, Thompson MC, Lazzaro MA, Taqi MA, Zaidat OO (2012) Vertebral artery stenting for the treatment of bow hunter’s syndrome: report of 4 cases. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 21:908.e1–908.e5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Matsuyama T, Morimoto T, Sakaki T (1997) Comparison of C1–2 posterior fusion and decompression of the vertebral artery in the treatment of bow hunter’s stroke. J Neurosurg 86:619–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sarkar J, Wolfe SQ, Ching BH, Kellicut DC (2014) Bow hunter’s syndrome causing vertebrobasilar insufficiency in a young man with neck muscle hypertrophy. Ann Vasc Surg 28:1032.e1–1032.e10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Saito K, Hirano M, Taoka T, Nakagawa H, Kitauchi T, Tanizawa E et al (2010) Artery-to-artery embolism with a mobile mural thrombus due to rotational vertebral artery occlusion. J Neuroimaging 20:284–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tominaga T, Takahashi T, Shimizu H, Yoshimoto T (2002) Rotational vertebral artery occlusion from occipital bone anomaly: a rare cause of embolic stroke. J Neurosurg 97:1456–1459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Citow JS, Macdonald RL (1999) Posterior decompression of the vertebral artery narrowed by cervical osteophyte: case report. World Neurosurg 51:495–499Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Inamasu J, Nakatsukasa M (2013) Rotational vertebral artery occlusion associated with occipitoatlantal assimilation, atlantoaxial subluxation, and basilar impression. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 115:1520–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Safain MG, Talan J, Malek AM, Hwang SW (2014) Spontaneous atraumatic vertebral artery occlusion due to physiological cervical extension: case report. J Neurosurg Spine 20:278–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cornelius JF, George B, Oka DN, Spiriev T, Steiger HJ, Hänggi D (2012) Bow-hunter’s syndrome caused by dynamic vertebral artery stenosis at the cranio-cervical junction—a management algorithm based on a systematic review and a clinical series. Neurosurg Rev 35:127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Yenigun A, Ustun ME, Tugrul S, Dogan R, Ozturan O (2016) Classification of vertebral artery loop formation and association with cervicogenic dizziness. J Laryngol Otol 130:1115–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Strupp M, Planck JH, Arbusow V, Steiger HJ, Brückmann H, Brandt T (2000) Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome with vertigo due to “labyrinthine excitation”. Neurology 54:1376–1379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Matsuyama T, Morimoto T, Sakaki T (1997) Bow Hunter’s stroke caused by a nondominant vertebral artery occlusion: case report. Neurosurgery 41:1393–1395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sugiu K, Agari T, Tokunaga K, Nishida A, Date I (2009) Endovascular treatment for bow hunter’s syndrome: case report. Minim Invasive Neurosurg MIN 52:193–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Yoshimura K, Iwatsuki K, Ishihara M, Onishi Y, Umegaki M, Yoshimine T (2011) Bow hunter’s stroke due to instability at the uncovertebral C3/4 joint. Eur Spine J 20:S266–S270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yeh J-F, Lin Y-J, Po HL, Wang S-F, Pan P-Y, Cheng S-J et al (2005) A case of bow hunter’s stroke caused by non-dominant vertebral artery. Acta Neurol Taiwanica 14:69–73Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Noh Y, Kwon O-K, Kim H-J, Kim JS (2011) Rotational vertebral artery syndrome due to compression of nondominant vertebral artery terminating in posterior inferior cerebellar artery. J Neurol 258:1775–1780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Healy AT, Lee BS, Walsh K, Bain MD, Krishnaney AA (2015) Bow hunter’s syndrome secondary to bilateral dynamic vertebral artery compression. J Clin Neurosci 22:209–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Choi K-D, Choi J-H, Kim J-S, Kim HJ, Kim M-J, Lee T-H et al (2013) Rotational vertebral artery occlusion: mechanisms and long-term outcome. Stroke 44:1817–1824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kim H-A, Yi H-A, Lee C-Y, Lee H (2011) Origin of isolated vertigo in rotational vertebral artery syndrome. Neurol Sci 32:1203–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Choi K-D, Shin H-Y, Kim JS, Kim S-H, Kwon O-K, Koo J-W et al (2005) Rotational vertebral artery syndrome: oculographic analysis of nystagmus. Neurology 65:1287–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Whitmore RG, Simon SL, Hurst RW, Nisenbaum HL, Kasner SE, Zager EL (2007) Bow hunter’s syndrome caused by accessory cervical ossification: posterolateral decompression and the use of intraoperative Doppler ultrasonography. Surg Neurol 67:169–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Vilela MD, Goodkin R, Lundin DA, Newell DW (2005) Rotational vertebrobasilar ischemia: hemodynamic assessment and surgical treatment. Neurosurgery 56:36–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Iguchi Y, Kimura K, Shibazaki K, Iwanaga T, Ueno Y, Inoue T (2006) Transcranial doppler and carotid duplex ultrasonography findings in Bow hunter’s syndrome. J Neuroimaging 16:278–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shum GL, Cinnamond S, Hough AD, Craven R, Whittingham W (2017) Test–retest reliability of measuring the vertebral arterial blood flow velocity in people with cervicogenic dizziness. J Manip Physiol Ther 40:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rastogi V, Rawls A, Moore O, Victorica B, Khan S, Saravanapavan P et al (2015) Rare etiology of bow hunter’s syndrome and systematic review of literature. J Vasc Interv Neurol 8:7–16PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mitchell J (2009) Vertebral artery blood flow velocity changes associated with cervical spine rotation: a meta-analysis of the evidence with implications for professional practice. J Man Manip Ther 17:46–57PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Strickland BA, Pham MH, Bakhsheshian J, Russin JJ, Mack WJ, Acosta FL (2017) Bow hunter’s syndrome: surgical management (video) and review of the literature. World Neurosurg 103:953.e7–953.e12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Velat GJ, Reavey-Cantwell JF, Ulm AJ, Lewis SB (2006) Intraoperative dynamic angiography to detect resolution of Bow Hunter’s syndrome: technical case report. Surg Neurol 66:420–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Chastain HD, Campbell MS, Iyer S, Roubin GS, Vitek J, Mathur A et al (1999) Extracranial vertebral artery stent placement: in-hospital and follow-up results. J Neurosurg 91:547–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Horowitz M, Jovin T, Balzar J, Welch W, Kassam A (2002) Bow hunter’s syndrome in the setting of contralateral vertebral artery stenosis: evaluation and treatment options. Spine 27:E495–E498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Weintraub MI (1993) Beauty parlor stroke syndrome: report of five cases. JAMA 269:2085–2086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Correia PN, Meyer IA, Eskandari A, Michel P (2016) Beauty parlor stroke revisited: an 11-year single-center consecutive series. Int J Stroke 11:356–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kameda T, Otani K, Tamura T, Konno S (2018) Beauty parlor stroke syndrome due to a bone fragment from an osteophyte of the atlas: case report. J Neurosurg Spine 28:389–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Endo K, Ichimaru K, Shimura H, Imakiire A (2000) Cervical vertigo after hair shampoo treatment at a hairdressing salon: a case report. Spine 25:632–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Heckmann JG, Heron P, Kasper B, Dorfler A, Maihofner C (2006) Beauty parlor stroke syndrome. Cerebrovasc Dis Basel Switz 21:140–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sahin N, Karataş O, Ozkaya M, Cakmak A, Berker E (2008) Demographics features, clinical findings and functional status in a group of subjects with cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Agri 20:14–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Krabak BJ, Borg-Stein J, Oas JA (2000) Chronic cervical myofascial pain syndrome: Improvement in dizziness and pain with a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. A pilot study. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 15:83–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Giamberardino MA, Affaitati G, Fabrizio A, Costantini R (2011) Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 25:185–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Thompson JM (2012) Exercise in muscle pain disorders. PM R 4:889–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Aydin T, Dernek B, Sentürk Ege T, Karan A, Aksoy C (2018) The effectiveness of dry needling and exercise therapy in patients with dizziness caused by cervical myofascial pain syndrome; prospective randomized clinical study. Pain Med Malden Mass.  https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pny072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Jaroshevskyi OA, Payenok OS, Logvinenko AV (2017) Evalution of the effectiveness of multimodal approach to the management of cervical vertigo. Wiad Lek 70:571–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Reneker JC, Clay Moughiman M, Cook CE (2015) The diagnostic utility of clinical tests for differentiating between cervicogenic and other causes of dizziness after a sports-related concussion: an international Delphi study. J Sci Med Sport 18:366–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Rashad UM (2010) Patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and cervical spine problems: is Epley’s manoeuvre contraindicated, and is a proposed new manoeuvre effective and safer? J Laryngol Otol 124:1167–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Humphriss RL, Baguley DM, Sparkes V, Peerman SE, Moffat D (2003) Contraindications to the Dix–Hallpike manoeuvre: a multidisciplinary review. Int J Audiol 42:166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kasturba Medical CollegeManipal Academy of Higher EducationUdupiIndia

Personalised recommendations